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アフリカアフリカ Africa 2019



○外務省 各国・地域情勢 ガンビア共和国

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◆1995/07/18 日本経済新聞 中台、アフリカで陣取り合戦 中国副首相が歴訪「一つの中国」強調
◆2007/07/03 Sankeiweb メキシコ快勝、ガンビアに3−0 サッカーU−20W杯
◆2007/07/06 Sponichi メキシコ、チリが決勝T進出
◆2007/07/06 DailySports online U-20W杯 日本は軽めの調整
◆2007/07/09 nikkansports.com ガンビア、ポルトガル決勝T/U20W杯
◆2007/07/09 DailySports online U-20W杯 ガンビアなど決勝Tへ
◆2007/07/12 NIKKEI NET 日本、後半早々に2点目・U―20W杯
◆2007/07/13 朝鮮日報 サッカーU20W杯:日本、チェコにPK戦で破れ8強ならず
◆2007/07/23 asahi.com 後発国の「頭脳流出」深刻 グローバル化原因 国連調査
◆2007/09/04 yomiuri.co.jp 台湾とアフリカ5か国が初サミット、台北で9日
◆2007/09/08 asahi.com 台湾、アフリカ友好国とサミット開催へ
◆2007/09/20 東京新聞 台湾加盟“門前払い” 国連総会一般委が議題却下
◆2007/09/22 AFP BB News 台湾の国連加盟申請 国連総会の議題とせず
◆2007/11/01 AllAfrica.com Gambia: Strengthening the Disabled
◆2007/12/18 AllAfrica.com Gambia: President of the Disabled Association Speaks Out
◆2008/02/25 AllAfrica.com Gambia: Two Gadhoh Members Return From Spain
◆2008/06/20 外務省 ガンビアの「ブリカマ魚市場建設計画」に対する無償資金協力に関する書簡の交換について
◆2008/11/14 The Daily Observer GADHOH’s headquarters and learning centre inaugurated
◆2008/12/31 AFP BB News ガンビアで英国人宣教師夫婦に1年の重労働刑
◆2009/03/21 毎日新聞 ガンビア:大統領命令で「魔女狩り」1000人迫害――アフリカ西部
◆2009/03/30 外務省 ガンビア共和国に対する無償資金協力に関する交換公文署名式について(食糧援助)
◆2009/04/04 allAfrica.com ガンビア、油脂、油類に関するCodex公聴会(英語 Gambia: Codex Public Hearing On Standards for Edible Fats And Oils
◆2009/04/14 allafrica.com ガンビアは国内自給自足達成に自信あり、特に米について(英語 Gambia: Lawmakers Sure of Food Self-Sufficiency
◆2009/04/24 MSN産経ニュース 【20世紀のきょう】ガンビアが共和制移行(1970・4・24)
◆2009/04/28 AllAfrica.com Gambia: Police Arrest Beggars in Banjul
◆2009/07/03 AllAfrica.com Gambia: Stakeholders Meet On Draft National Disability Policy
◆2009/07/06 AllAfrica.com Gambia: Second Annual Disability Sports Competition Held
◆2009/07/06 AllAfrica.com Gambia: National Disability Policy Validated
◆2009/07/15 Foroyaa online The Gambia National Integrated Disability Policy Validated
◆2009/09/24 AllAfrica.com Gambia: Gadhoh Committed to Empower Its Members...executive Director Sheriff Janko
◆2009/10/07 AllAfrica.com Gambia: Spotlight On Disability And Sport
◆2009/11/17 AFP BB News ガンビアで大々的な「魔女狩り」、政府が支援か
◆2009/12/03 AllAfrica.com Gambia: Country to Observe World Disability Day Daily Observer
◆2010/07/21 AllAfrica.com Gambia: St John's School Struggling to Meet Mounting Expenses Publisher
◆2010/08/11 日刊工業新聞 双日、アフリカ開発支援の国際金融機関であるAFCと戦略提携
◆2010/08/20 AllAfrica.com Assembly Select Committee On Health, Others Tour Health Facilities
◆2010/10/19 AllAfrica.com Gambia: WFD Training on Human Rights Wraps-Up
◆2010/11/24 毎日新聞 NEWS25時:ガンビア イランと断交
◆2011/05/12 AllAfrica.com Gambia: YCF Mathematics Teachers' Enrichment Programme Ends
◆2011/05/24 AllAfrica.com Gambia: Youth With Disability Need New Beginning
◆2011/08/17 AllAfrica.com Gambia: Persons With Disability Ought to Decide for Themselves
◆2011/09/21 AllAfrica.com Gambia: GADHOH Marks International Deaf Week
◆2011/09/27 AllAfrica.com Gambia: MOICI Plans to Include Sign Language Interpreter On GRTS Says DPs Touray
◆2011/09/28 AllAfrica.com Gambia: MoHSW Urged to Employ Sign Language Interpreters in Hospitals
◆2011/10/02 Middle East North Africa Financial Network Deaf Education Is Low in the Country, Says GADHOH Boss
◆2012/01/25 外務省 ガンビア共和国に対する無償資金協力(食糧援助)に関する書簡の交換
◆2012/02/09 AllAfrica.com ガンビアの盲学校の自分も盲の教員、経験を語る
◆2012/03/14 nikkei.com 台湾総統、アフリカ4カ国訪問
◆2012/04/25 AllAfrica.com Gambia: Visually Impaired Woman Reflects on Challenges
◆2012/06/17 cnn.co.jp 国際刑事裁判所、新主任検察官に女性を初起用 ガンビア出身
◆2012/07/18 AllAfrica.com Gambia: BAC Gives D20, 000 to Gadhoh WCR Branch
◆2012/08/23 cnn.co.jp 30年死刑停止のガンビア、大統領が全死刑囚の刑執行を言明
◆2012/09/21 Awoko Mercury International doles out le 10m to the Sierra Leone Deaf Association
◆2012/10/23 AllAfrica.com Gambia: GMG Donates to St. Therese U.S, Others
◆2012/10/29 New Internationalist (blog) Gambian Paralympians: where are they now?
◆2013/04/09 AllAfrica.com Gambia Association of Physically Disabled Received Vehicle
◆2013/04/10 AllAfrica.com Gambia: Mathematics Teachers' Enrichment Programme Underway
◆2013/04/10 AllAfrica.com Gambia: Mathematics Teachers' Enrichment Programme Underway
◆2013/04/11 AllAfrica.com Gambia: Coker-Njie Family Foundation Gives to Disabled Children
◆2013/04/16 AllAfrica.com Gambia: Sports Minister, U.S. Ambassador Laud GBA
◆2013/04/18 AllAfrica.com Gambia: SG Sarr - Gadhoh Will Advocate for Rights of the Deaf
◆2013/05/21 AllAfrica.com Gambia: GFD Holds Press Briefing in Preparation of Disability and National Epilepsy Week
◆2013/06/05 AllAfrica.com Gambia: GFD Observes the First Joint Disability and Epilepsy Week
◆2013/06/21 AllAfrica.com Gambia: Father Shows Concern for the Disabled, As Daughter Joins Paralympics Committee
◆2013/07/02 AllAfrica.com Gambia: Disabled Man Grateful to Yagana World Foundation
◆2013/07/24 AllAfrica.com Gambia: Beakanyang, RSOD to Involve Disabled Women in Climate Change Mitigation
◆2013/08/16 The Gambia Journal Gambia drops charges against disabled beggars
◆2013/09/09 AllAfrica.com Gambia: Members of Association of Physically Disabled Recite Quran for Sponsors
◆2013/09/26 AllAfrica.com Gambia: Gadhoh Defeats Access Bank in Global Deaf Week Commemoration
◆2013/10/03 nikkei.com 西アフリカのガンビア、英連邦から脱退
◆2013/10/22 AllAfrica.com Gambia: Disaster and Living With Disability
◆2013/11/15 毎日新聞 台湾:ガンビアが断交通告「国家の戦略的利益のため」
◆2013/11/15 nikkei.com ガンビア、台湾と外交関係を断絶 中国の援助期待か
◆2013/11/16 yomiuri.co.jp 台湾と断交したガンビア、中国は「接触ない」
◆2013/11/18 中央社フォーカス台湾 台湾、ガンビアと正式断交 外交部「関係に挽回の余地はない」
◆2013/11/18 nikkei.com 台湾もガンビアとの断交宣言
◆2013/11/18 毎日新聞 台湾:ガンビア共和国と断交正式発表
◆2013/11/19 yomiuri.co.jp 台湾と国交持つ国は22か国に…ガンビアと断交
◆2013/11/22 AllAfrica.com Gambia: Health and Nutrition Gambia to Embark On Nationwide Meningitis Campaign
◆2013/11/25 nikkei.com (フォーカス)アフリカに徴税システム売り込むメーカー社長 山田哲夫氏
◆2013/12/20 AllAfrica.com Gambia: Deaf Scorpions Recruit Talents Ahead of Nation's Cup
◆2013/12/20 AllAfrica.com Gambia/Cote d'Ivoire: Gambia Deaf Scorpions in Tour Ahead of Abidjan Nations Cup
◆2013/12/30 AllAfrica.com Gambia: National Deaf Scorpions Back From NBR Tour
◆2014/01/29 AllAfrica.com Gambia: Disability Digest
◆2014/03/15 AFP BB News ガンビア大統領、「公用語から英語外す」と英語で発表
◆2014/03/21 AllAfrica.com Gambia: Deaf Scorpions to Take Part in Africa Football Cup
◆2014/04/16 AllAfrica.com Gambia: Town Field Primary Visits WCR Deaf School
◆2014/04/21 AllAfrica.com Gambia: Disability Rights Training for Law Enforcement Officers/ Legal Practitioners On the Way
◆2014/04/21 AllAfrica.com Gambia: Townfield Primary Visits WCR Deaf School
◆2014/04/25 spyghana.com Ngani Witches Camps Gives To Deaf Pupils
◆2014/04/29 AllAfrica.com Gambia: GFD On Disability Rights
◆2014/06/30 Wirral News Charitable Wirral primary school raises £4,500 for deaf school in Gambia
◆2014/07/07 AllAfrica.com Gambia: Fibank Presents Food Items to St. John's School for the Deaf
◆2014/07/15 AllAfrica.com Gambia: Deaf Scorpions Intensify Preparations Ahead of Africa Cup
◆2014/07/16 AllAfrica.com Gambia: Deaf Sport Seeks Support to Participate in ADFCN 2014
◆2014/07/16 The Point Deaf Sport seeks support to participate in ADFCN 2014
◆2014/07/24 AllAfrica.com Gambia: Disabled Graduate Appeals for Support to Pursue Master's Degree in UK
◆2014/07/25 AllAfrica.com Gambia Deaf Scorpions Solicits Support From Gambians
◆2014/08/20 AllAfrica.com Gambia Deaf Scorpions Solicit Support From President Jammeh
◆2015/01/02 The Guardian 'Dozens arrested and weapons cache found' after failed Gambia coup
◆2015/01/06 asahi.com ガンビアでクーデター未遂 米司法省、米国籍2人訴追
◆2015/01/07 The Guardian 'The Gambia coup didn't just fail, it backfired'
◆2015/03/19 StarAfrica.com FAO launches goat fattening project for disabled Gambians
◆2015/03/23 StarAfrica.com Gambia: First Lady’s support to deaf school, new trade policy dominate press
◆2015/03/31 AllAfrica.com Gambia: 'More Than 15 Visually Impaired Were Trained On ICT' Says Stat Now Director
◆2015/05/20 AllAfrica.com Gambia: Deaf Scorpions Solicit Help to Partake in Deaf World Cup Qualifiers
◆2015/06/14 The Washington Post Tiny Gambia has a big export: Migrants desperate to reach Europe
◆2015/07/10 AllAfrica.com Gambia: Federation for the Disabled Receives 500 Lenses From Spain
◆2015/07/15 AllAfrica.com Gambia: 'People With Disability Are Capable of Contributing to Development'
◆2015/07/16 Daily Nation Kenya set to host TICAD next year, Uhuru Kenyatta says
◆2015/07/17 nikkei.com 16年のアフリカ開発会議、ケニアで開催へ
◆2015/07/17 THE STANDARD Kenya to host Tokyo International Conference on African Development summit next year as Gambia bows out
◆2016/02/12 共同通信PRワイヤー Africellが3GおよびLTEデータ課金・ポリシーコントロールのためにAlepoと契約
◆2016/03/10 公明新聞 TICAD成功へ協力
◆2016/03/17 nikkei.com 中国とガンビア、国交樹立 台湾けん制
◆2016/06/10 外務省 濵地外務大臣政務官のベトナム及びガンビア訪問
◆2016/06/23 外務省 TICAD VI閣僚級準備会合
◆2016/12/10 The Sankei Shimbun 大統領選のやり直し要求 ガンビア、敗北認めた現職ジャメ氏一転
◆2016/12/11 The Sankei Shimbun 選挙敗北受け入れないガンビア大統領を強く非難 国連安保理
◆2016/12/14 Fatu Network Ecowas says ‘could send troops’ if Yahya Jammeh refuses to go
◆2016/12/14 BBC Gambia election crisis: Jammeh risks sanctions, UN envoy says
◆2017/01/18 asahi.com ガンビア独裁者、選挙敗れても居座り 軍事介入招く恐れ
◆2017/01/19 cnn.co.jp ガンビア大統領、選挙で敗北も退任拒否 周辺国が介入示唆
◆2017/01/21 asahi.com 「居座り」ガンビア大統領、退陣表明 近隣国の圧力受け
◆2017/01/22 The Huffington Post ガンビアの「居座り」大統領、退陣表明 赤道ギニア亡命で流血回避
◆2017/01/22 AFP BB News ガンビアのジャメ前大統領が出国、亡命先は赤道ギニア
◆2017/01/23 AFP BB News ガンビア前大統領 亡命前に12.5億円持ち出しか 国庫ほぼ空
◆2017/01/23 BBC News Japan ガンビア前大統領が亡命 多額の政府資金「行方不明」
◆2017/01/23 cnn.co.jp ガンビア大統領が退陣、赤道ギニアに亡命
◆2017/01/27 nikkei.com ガンビア新大統領が初の帰国 前任者居座り隣国で就任
◆2017/01/27 cnn.co.jp ガンビア新大統領が帰国、前任者の亡命受け
◆2017/01/27 nikkei.com FT]民主主義と貿易はどちらも大事 アフリカ、地域貿易に背を向ける英米と異なる道
◆2017/03/07 AFP BB News 動画:米歌手エイコンさん、ガンビアで太陽光発電に取り組む
◆2017/03/16 AFP BB News 米ラッパーのエイコンさん、アフリカに太陽光発電を届ける活動
◆2017/07/05 時事ドットコムニュース ガンビアの生徒に米ビザ発給拒否=ロボット・コンテスト参加者
◆2018/02/28 newsclip 「セックスツアーならタイへ」 ガンビア観光相発言が物議
◆2018/05/04 フットボールチャンネル ドルトら4クラブ、急成長の“10代神童”に興味。チェルシーはスカウト派遣し調査へ
◆2018/05/17 フットボールチャンネル ユーベら5クラブ、急成長の“10代神童”にオファーも…アタランタが全て拒否
◆2018/05/22 This Is Africa Corruption and looting of resources by African leaders, a bane to society
◆2018/10/30 cnn.co.jp 靴下の臭いでマラリア患者を発見、探知犬の実験に成功 英研究
◆2018/10/30 cnn.co.jp 靴下の臭いでマラリア患者を発見、探知犬の実験に成功 英研究



中台、アフリカで陣取り合戦 中国副首相が歴訪「一つの中国」強調








メキシコ快勝、ガンビアに3−0 サッカーU−20W杯



(2007/07/03 08:56)





F組2連勝で決勝トーナメント進出を決めた日本は午前中、ビクトリアでGK林(流通経大)と控えの10人が軽めの練習を行った。 (共同)

[ 2007年07月06日 11:14 速報記事 ]








U-20W杯 ガンビアなど決勝Tへ












B組1位通過のスペインは12日(韓国時間)、D組3位のブラジルと対戦し4−2で、D組1位の米国はB組3位のウルグアイを2−1で勝利した。 F組1位の日本はE組2位のチェコと対戦、2−2で引き分け、PK戦の末3−4で破れ、2大会ぶり5度目のベスト8入りはならなかった。また、A組2位のオーストリアはC組2位のガンビアを2−1で退け、同じくベスト8入りを果たした。



後発国の「頭脳流出」深刻 グローバル化原因 国連調査









台湾加盟“門前払い” 国連総会一般委が議題却下

2007年9月20日 夕刊









* 2008年12月31日 06:15 発信地:バンジュール /ガンビア

【12月31日 AFP】アフリカ西部ガンビアの裁判所は、正当な権力に対する抵抗活動の教唆もしくは扇動の罪を認めた英国人宣教師の夫妻に対し、1年の重労働刑と罰金25万ダラシ(約85万円)の判決を下した。

David FultonとFiona Fulton夫妻は11月29日、バンジュール(Banjul)で拘束された。ガンビアは人権侵害の問題で批判を受けているが、同国で外国人が扇動罪で懲役刑を科されるのは2人が初めて。






毎日新聞 2009年3月21日 東京夕刊



2009.4.24 02:28




* 2009年11月17日 14:37 発信地:バンジュール/ガンビア

【11 月17日 AFP】西アフリカのガンビアでは、政府が支援していると見られる「魔女狩り」が今年の初めから数か月間続き、全土を震え上がらせた。魔女狩りが終わって 7か月が経過するが、深刻な健康被害に苦しんでいる人がいまだに大勢いると、病院関係者が13日語った。




ガンビアのメディアは、魔女狩りを行っているのはギニア人たちで、今年始めにヤヤ・ジャメ(Yahya Jammeh)大統領のおばが死亡した直後に呼び寄せられたと報じている。ジャメ大統領は、おばの死を魔女のしわざだと話していたという。




NEWS25時:ガンビア イランと断交


毎日新聞 2010年11月24日 東京朝刊


国際刑事裁判所、新主任検察官に女性を初起用 ガンビア出身

2012.06.17 Sun posted at: 16:46 JST

(CNN) 国際刑事裁判所(ICC、オランダ・ハーグ)の新たな主任検察官に15日、次席検察官を務めてきたファトゥ・ベンソウダ氏が就任した。ベンソウダ氏はアフリカ北西部のガンビア出身で、女性が主任検察官に起用されたのは初めて。任期は9年。








2012.08.23 Thu posted at 18:25 JST

(CNN) 西アフリカ・ガンビアのジャメ大統領はこのほど、9月半ばまでに全死刑囚に対する死刑の執行を計画していると明らかにした。ガンビアは過去約30年にわたり死刑の執行は行っていない。大統領の発言に対して、人権団体から非難の声が上がっている。大統領が、死刑執行に踏み切る方針に変更した理由については明らかになっていない。








2013/10/3 19:37







毎日新聞 2013年11月15日 19時21分



ガンビア、台湾と外交関係を断絶 中国の援助期待か

2013/11/15 18:56




台湾、ガンビアと正式断交 外交部「関係に挽回の余地はない」


【政治】 2013/11/18 14:22

(台北 18日 中央社)外交部はきょう、西アフリカのガンビアと外交関係が終了したことを発表した。2008年から続く馬英九政権下では初めての断交となり、台湾と国交を結んでいる国はこれで22カ国となった。







毎日新聞 2013年11月18日 19時31分





2014年03月15日 18:03 発信地:ダカール/セネガル

【3月15日 AFP】西アフリカ・ガンビアのヤヤ・ジャメ(Yahya Jammeh)大統領(48)は先週、英語を公用語から外すと発表した。旧宗主国・英国への対抗姿勢を示す新たな動きとみられる。







'Dozens arrested and weapons cache found' after failed Gambia coup

The Guardian
Agence France-Presse
Friday 2 January 2015 07.12 GMT

Suspects are being interrogated, says intelligence source, as president Yahya Jammeh blames foreign-based dissidents

Dozens of military personnel and civilians were arrested and a large cache of weapons and explosives found after an alleged coup attempt in the Gambia, an intelligence source said.

The suspects have been interrogated and were being held in “four villas” in or near the tiny west African nation’s capital Banjul, said a source close to the Gambia’s National Intelligence Agency (NIA).

A group of heavily armed men led by an army deserter attacked the presidential palace before dawn on Tuesday, but were repelled by forces loyal to the Gambia’s leader of 20-years, Yahya Jammeh.

The strongman, who was visiting Dubai at the time of the attack, blamed unidentified foreign dissidents and “terrorists” for the assault.

“It is an attack by dissidents based in the US, Germany and UK,” Jammeh said in a televised address Wednesday, denying it was an attempt to unseat him.

“This was not a coup. This was an attack by a terrorist group backed by some powers that I would not name.”

Jammeh insisted that the armed forces “are very loyal” and that only former soldiers, including a senior commander, had taken part in the attack on his palace.

“No force can take this place and nobody can destabilise this country,” he said. “Anybody who plans to attack this country, be ready, because you are going to die.”

Investigators have allegedly seized the plan laying out the attack, in which the three suspects, including the alleged ringleader, were killed, according to a military officer.

One alleged conspirator also led authorities to “a large quantity of very sophisticated automatic weapons and explosives,” in a shipping container disguised as second-hand clothing at Banjul’s port, the source close to the NIA said.

Four officers suspected of participating in the attempt had taken refuge in neighbouring Guinea-Bissau, a military source told AFP.

Jammeh returned home on Wednesday from Dubai, where he had been on a private visit.

The 49-year-old, who seized power in a 1994 coup that ousted the Gambia’s founding leader Sir Dawda Jawara, has come under fire for serious human rights abuses, including repression of the media and the disappearance of rivals.

He claims to have foiled a succession of coup plots in the country and military sources have said there are fears he may now launch a purge.

The United States on Thursday denied it had any role in an apparent coup attempt, adding that it “strongly condemns any attempt to seize power through extra-constitutional means”.

“The US government had no role in the events that took place in Banjul,” a US state department official said.

Neighbouring Senegal has also “strongly” condemned the apparent coup attempt, which it said was undertaken “by a group of insurgents”.

UN chief Ban Ki-moon called for a probe of the failed takeover and also urged the government and security forces in Banjul to “act in full respect of human rights”.

A Dakar-based researcher, Gilles Yabi, warned Wednesday of a “major risk of repression extending beyond the military figures involved in the coup attempt”.

“There are fears the regime could take advantage of the situation by blaming people who had nothing to do with it.”

The Gambia is a popular winter sun destination for European holidaymakers, especially from Britain.

'Dozens arrested and weapons cache found' after failed Gambia coup


ガンビアでクーデター未遂 米司法省、米国籍2人訴追







Tiny Gambia has a big export: Migrants desperate to reach Europe

The Washington Post
Story by Kevin Sieff
Photos by Jane Hahn
Published on June 14, 2015

DAMPHA KUNDA, Gambia ― The village was losing its young men. Hundreds had left their thatched-roof huts and tiny squares of farmland for the promise of Europe. About 40 had died on the way.

Susso knew nearly all of them. He had prayed at the funerals after their boats capsized or their smugglers stranded them in the desert, ceremonies with mourners but no bodies. The grim toll complicated his plan, turned it into a secret he hid from almost everyone.

He, too, was preparing to join the exodus from Dampha Kunda.

Africa has never seen such a flood of young men heading for Europe. The number of migrants crossing by sea to Italy, a top entry point, nearly quadrupled from 2013 to 2014, reaching about 170,100. Sub-Saharan Africans made up a growing percentage of the total, with around 64,600 arriving last year. This year, the figure is expected to be even higher. Gambia, one of Africa’s smallest nations, is a big contributor to that flow.

To deter the arrivals, European policymakers have proposed reinforcing their naval forces in the Mediterranean, conducting mass deportations and destroying smugglers’ boats. When Susso turns on the radio in the bedroom he shares with his wife and six children, he hears all the ways Europe is trying to dissuade him from leaving.

But it has never been so alluring ― or so easy ― to begin the trip. Over the past two years, sub-Saharan Africa’s smuggling networks have expanded, as Libya has descended into chaos, leaving its coasts unguarded as migrants set out for Italy, a few hundred miles away.

Stories of Gambians arriving on Italian or Spanish shores now reach even remote Dampha Kunda via Facebook and text message, like rumors of a gold rush. Most men keep their plans a secret until they leave, fearing an outcry from worried relatives or arrest by the country’s authoritarian government. Susso asked that only his last name, common in eastern Gambia, be used in this article.

In the weeks before his trip, he veiled himself in routine, waking every day at 5 and working on the rice farm of the village’s richest family. He played on the floor with his children, most of them half-clothed in torn shirts and underwear, telling them nothing of his plan.

Then, one day in May, Susso opened a drawer hidden under a yellow blanket and removed a small metal box with a silver padlock. He counted the money: 17,000 dalasi, about $500. It had taken him three years. It was enough to begin the journey north.

Twice a week, a bus called the “TA Express,” full of young men wearing sandals and carrying small bags, clatters past Dampha Kunda on its way to Agadez, a desert city in Niger that smugglers use as a way station on the route to Libya and Europe.

Soon, Susso told himself, he would be on it.

“The Western Route,” experts call the web of migrant trails from Gambia, Senegal and Mali that now lead to North Africa. But Gambians have a different name for the dangerous path to Europe: The Backway.

“Say No to the Backway,” reads a government banner near Susso’s village, with a picture of a boat capsized in the ocean.

“Backway bad way,” says a song funded by the U.S. Embassy in Gambia and played on the radio here.

Across Africa, there are different paths to Europe and different reasons for leaving. In Somalia, refugees flee the brutal al-Shabab rebels, following an “Eastern route” winding through Sudan. In Eritrea, they escape a harsh military regime.

And Susso’s reasons? He walked by them one day in the scorching heat shortly before he would depart, homes in sandy lots with numbers painted on the walls.

House number 1027, a mud-baked hut, was getting a cinderblock addition, thanks to money from a relative in Spain. House 301 boasted a flat-screen television, thanks to remittances from Germany. And House 311 had a big red tractor.

“So much money,” he sighed.

Poverty had once imposed a kind of uniformity here ― every house with a thatched roof and dirt floor, every meal a small portion of rice and okra, every job tending to patches of rice on a small subsistence farm.

Then the wealth gap that had always separated Europe and Africa began to insinuate itself here. If you had a relative in Europe, you were rich. If not, you remained stuck on the edge of survival.

It filled Susso with an envy that bordered on anger. He was 39, broad-shouldered and sleepy-eyed, older and wearier than most of the men making the journey north.

Susso could afford only two meals a day for his family. He knew he would have to pull his four sons out of school in their early teens, so they could work his small rice field or make money elsewhere. He shared his two-room home with 12 people, including his brother, nieces and nephews, a bedsheet hanging where the front door should be.

Like so many Gambians, no matter how much he was willing to work, his ambition yielded almost nothing.

A growing number of Gambians are literate, but with “little chance at employment that matches their skills, just like China by the 1960s and India by the 1970s,” said Joel Millman, a spokesman for the International Organization for Migration. “So they do the rational thing and they leave.”

The Gambian government hasn’t helped. Its longtime dictator, President Yahya Jammeh, has preached a life of subsistence. He has created a bizarre mythology around himself as a man who could cure AIDS and threatened to personally slit the throats of gay men. He has brushed off the thousands of young men fleeing his country as failures and bad Muslims.

But even the farmers of Dampha Kunda knew migrants were the true success stories. Twenty percent of Gambia’s gross domestic product now comes from remittances, according to the World Bank, one of the highest percentages in Africa. It’s a nation with almost no industry or valuable natural resources, where the government dominates what little private sector exists.

“The only people who can make any money in The Gambia are those very close to the president. If not, you’re making $100 a month, if that,” said C. Omar Kebbeh, an economist and expert in Gambian migration, now at the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis.

Not far from Susso’s house, there was a massive billboard with a picture of Jammeh, smiling in a white cap.

“Grow what you eat and eat what you grow,” it said.

For Susso, that policy had one palpable impact.

“We’re hungry,” he said. “We’re always hungry.”

Susso had memorized the way Dampha Kunda looked from eight feet off the ground, as he bumped through the rice fields atop a big red tractor. The new two-story houses rose above the old, mud-colored huts. Across much of the village’s cropland, plants were ailing. With the rising prices, few people could afford fertilizer.

The tractor was an extraordinary luxury in a place where almost no one owned a car. But it didn’t belong to Susso. Its owner lived in Europe.

The first major wave of Gambians left villages like Dampha Kunda in the 1990s, mostly for Spain. By 2010, there were 65,000 Gambians abroad, around 4 percent of the population. One of the men sending money home was Alagi Ceesay, the owner of the tractor.

Ceesay had left for Europe in 2002. Back then, the journey was expensive and often futile. Because Libya’s borders were well patrolled, migrants traveled through Tunisia. Still, they were typically apprehended before crossing the Mediterranean.

Ceesay made it through. He found a job in a factory in Italy, where the economy was booming, and authorities looked the other way when men arrived from Africa to work.

Ceesay sent between 200 and 300 euros home a month ― as much as $450. His family tore down their home with its thatched roof and built two large, rectangular buildings out of concrete. Ceesay’s photo now hangs on a cream-colored wall, as if he were surveying his grounds from the frame, a proud man in a shiny brown suit.

“Life has been good to us, praise God,” said Foday Ceesay, his brother, sitting beneath the picture.

By 2008, Ceesay was earning enough to send $9,000 back to Dampha Kunda in a single Western Union transfer ― enough for a down payment on the big, red tractor.

Susso has been driving the tractor for three years for the family, earning around $5 a day.

“All day, all I think is that I wish this tractor was mine,” he said.

By 2009, cellphones had arrived in Dampha Kunda, and Susso’s battered silver Nokia began to fill with numbers of Gambians in Europe. Their boats had arrived, but many of them had been taken directly to an immigration detention center, which Gambians referred to unironically as the “campus.” They could spend months or years there, seeking legal status. The more you picked away at the stories of those who had made it to Europe, the slimmer Susso’s chances seemed to be of succeeding.

“I know what the risks are. I know it’s very hard,” he said. “Making it to Europe is luck.”

Susso’s family hadn’t had much luck. One of his cousins had been left by his smugglers to die in the Libyan desert. Another had drowned at sea. Susso himself had made two previous attempts, and both had failed. He couldn’t even swim.

Susso knew the realities, but it was as if poverty had narrowed his field of vision. He obsessed over the success stories, the men like Ceesay.

He thought about how much wiser he would be with the money. He would send his children to private school. His family would eat meat for dinner. He would build a more beautiful compound than Ceesay’s, one that wouldn’t flood during the rainy season.

“It’s worth risking my life,” he said. “The Backway is my only chance.”

Here was Susso’s plan: in the city of Agadez, Niger, he would meet a smuggler who would take him to Libya. And from Libya, after working and saving more money, he would board the boat to Italy. The development of the migrant route meant he could pay for the journey piece by piece, one smuggler connecting him to the next. If everything went right, the trip would cost around $2,000.

When he revealed his plans to a few people, even the ones who disagreed with his decision were hesitant to admonish him. A few days before he boarded the bus, Susso went to the village’s imam, Saikou Drummeh.

Drummeh convened a group of men who had studied the Koran, and they prayed over Susso. It wore on the imam to see a succession of men leave on the dangerous odyssey; he had lost his own brother to the Backway when the man’s boat capsized.

“But what can I do?” the imam said. “They’ve already made up their minds. There is nothing for them here.”

Late year, the U.S. Embassy held a concert called “Say No to Backway,” paying 12 musicians to record songs about illegal migration and perform them in an amphitheater.

“But not many people came,” said Fattoumattah Sandeng, one of the performers. “A lot of people are planning to go the Backway, and they didn’t see the reason to go to a concert like that.”

Even Gambian migrants themselves are trying to persuade their countrymen to stay home. Nfalamin Gassama, a Gambian in Italy, started a Facebook group called “Difficulties faced by migrants in Libya” to underscore threats of kidnapping and extortion. Instead of deterring people, though, Gassama was flooded with messages from people who needed a smuggler’s contact or more money to pay their way.

“The whole country is running for their lives,” he said.

The white bus pulled up in downtown Banjul, Gambia’s capital, on a warm Friday night, glittery streamers hanging from its windshield and palm tree air fresheners dangling from the ceiling.

The men waiting for it were typing text messages and making final calls on their cellphones to their families. A 19-year-old named Amadou was dialing his smuggler in Niger, but the call wasn’t going through.

“He told me to call him, but he doesn’t answer,” Amadou said, exasperated.

Some of the men sitting at the bus stop in the 100-degree heat clutched winter coats. They had been warned that in the lands north of Libya, they should be prepared for rain and cold.

The journey through West Africa to Libya once could take months. Now, thanks to the bus, it’s a six-day drive.

The men awaiting the bus hardly look like men at all, each in his late teens or early 20s. One sold a laptop to afford the $150 bus ticket. Another worked for a year baking bread at a restaurant. Another got a loan from a neighbor.

A skinny man working at the bus station came out to survey the crowd.

“The journey is step by step. This is the first one,” he said.

It was dark when the bus left Banjul, driving through the city’s sprawl, past stores called European Fashions, Swiss Secondhand Goods, German Enterprise. It continued on Gambia’s only highway, a two-lane road that splits vast acres of scrubland.

It passed the village of Dumbuto, where last month a teenage boy quietly sold his family’s only cow to fund his journey. It passed the house of 20-year-old Buba, who had been kidnapped in Libya on his own journey. His brother, Lamin, was repairing bicycles for $5 a day to pay the kidnappers their $350 ransom.

The television on the bus played an American action movie starring Will Smith, flashing scenes of car chases and money falling from the sky. Amadou’s smuggler finally called him back.

“Let me know when you get to Agadez,” he said.

It was well after midnight when the bus approached Susso’s village. He was sleeping in the one room he shares with his wife and six children. Under his bed he kept a photo album. A few days earlier, he had pulled out a picture of himself and four friends.

“Everyone else has already gone the Backway,” he said, referring to the men in the photo who had left Gambia.

Susso wasn’t ready to catch the bus that night. He still had a few last-minute things to do. He had to follow the instructions of a traditional healer, giving away food and other charity in exchange for good fortune. He had to buy the small knapsack he would fill with clothes and photographs. He had to reveal his secret to his mother.

He was growing restless. The men in Europe, even the ones at the detention center, were beckoning every day by text message.

“They tell me, ‘We’re here. We made it. It’s okay,’" he said.

Tiny Gambia has a big export: Migrants desperate to reach Europe









中国とガンビア、国交樹立 台湾けん制

2016/3/17 23:33



大統領選のやり直し要求 ガンビア、敗北認めた現職ジャメ氏一転

The Sankei Shimbun
2016.12.10 22:15





選挙敗北受け入れないガンビア大統領を強く非難 国連安保理

The Sankei Shimbun
2016.12.11 17:00




Ecowas says ‘could send troops’ if Yahya Jammeh refuses to go

Fatu Network
Dec 14, 2016
By Alhagie Jobe

The sub-regional grouping - Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) says military intervention in The Gambia is ‘possible’ if outgoing President Yahya Jammeh does not step down.

Marcel de Souza told French based RFI Radio that diplomacy is the preferred path as at now but ‘draconian’ measures would have to be considered if it failed.

On Tuesday, four West African leaders of Nigeria, Ghana, Liberia and Sierra Leone and UN Africa envoy were in Banjul to persuade outgoing President Jammeh to step down.

Asked whether Ecowas would consider sending troops into The Gambia, Mr de Souza told Radio France Internationale: “We have done it in the past. We currently have troops in Guinea-Bissau with the Ecomib mission. We have had troops in Mali. And therefore it is a possible solution.”

Mr Jammeh who lost the December 1st Presidential elections to opposition coalition leader Adama Barrow initially accepted defeat before changing his mind.

The commission said Mr Barrow obtained 222,708 votes (43.3%) compared with Mr Jammeh’s 208,487 (39.6%). A third candidate, Mama Kandeh, won 89,768 votes (17.1%).

Mr Jammeh, who has ruled the country for 22 years, has questioned the validity of the count after the electoral commission changed some results, even though the electoral body still insists that the results represent the true will of the people and that Jammeh lost.

Meanwhile, President-elect Barrow has welcomed the regional intervention, saying he hoped Mr Jammeh would give up power.

Ecowas says ‘could send troops’ if Yahya Jammeh refuses to go


Gambia election crisis: Jammeh risks sanctions, UN envoy says

14 December 2016

Gambian President Yahya Jammeh will be "strongly sanctioned" if he tries to stay in power, the UN's regional envoy, Mohammed Ibn Chambas, has said.

UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon, along with the US, also urged the Gambian security forces to leave the country's electoral commission office, which they seized on Tuesday.

The army could compromise "sensitive electoral material", Mr Ban said.

Mr Jammeh initially conceded defeat to Adama Barrow before changing his mind.

A visit by the leaders of Nigeria, Ghana, Liberia and Sierra Leone on Tuesday failed to convince him to hand over power.

Mr Ban said taking over the electoral commission building was an "outrageous act of disrespect of the will of the Gambian people and defiance towards the international community at a time when a high-level delegation was in the country to broker a peaceful transfer of power".

The US embassy in Banjul also demanded that security forces withdraw, saying the "unnecessary and unprovoked show of force is seen as a move to subvert the democratic process".

Tuesday also saw Mr Jammeh's party challenge the election in the country's supreme court.

But Mr Ibn Chambas, who visited The Gambia on Tuesday, said the legal process was separate from Mr Jammeh's mandate as president and he had to step down when it ends on 19 January.

"For Mr Jammeh, the end is here and under no circumstances can he continue to be president," he said.

It is also unclear how Mr Jammeh's supreme court challenge can proceed because only one of the court's seven judges are in post.

Even if the court does consider the case, it is unclear whether it will reach a decision before the end of Mr Jammeh's term in office, a spokesman for The Gambia Bar Association has said.

The head of the Gambian electoral commission, Alieu Momar Njai, has said corrected election results do not change the overall outcome and Mr Barrow was still the winner.

The UN and US interventions follow Tuesday's visit by the four West African leaders, who met with both Mr Jammeh and Mr Barrow.

Liberia's President Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf said a deal was not something that could happen in a day and said a report of their discussions would be made on Saturday to a meeting of the West African grouping Ecowas.

However Mr Ibn Chambas said he did not think military intervention to force Mr Jammeh from power would be necessary, after a senior Ecowas official said that a military option would be "conceivable" if diplomacy failed.

"It may not be necessary. Let's cross that bridge when we get there," he said.

Gambia election crisis: Jammeh risks sanctions, UN envoy says

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