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Workfare

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¡¡What is Workfare?

¡Origin

According to OED (Simpson and Weiner prepared 1989: 548),

Canzoneri (1968) reported that Mr. Charles Evers prepared election campaign. Mr. Evers invented "workfare" as a program for his campaign.

But Kobayashi pointed out that New York Post (1968) may be most oldest record about workfare. A political strategy of Mr. Evers was to increase voter registration by black people without scaring white people. He used workfare to help black people, because white people did not like welfare (Kobayashi 2007).


¡Definition

Peck (2001) cites below,

"Workfare. Any public welfare program that requires welfare recipients to work (work + welfare = workfare) or to enroll in a formal job-training program." (Dorsey Dictionary of American Government and Politics)


¡Reference

ŸCANZONERI Robert 1968, "Charles Evers: Mississippi's Representative Man?" Harper's Magazine, 237(1418): 67-74.
ŸKOBAYASHI Hayato 2007, "The Origin and Transformation of the Idea of Workfare: From Charles Evers to Richard Nixon,"[Abstract in English] Core Ethics, 3: 133-42.
ŸPECK Jamie 2001, Workfare States, New York: The Guilford Press.
ŸNew York Post 1968, "Evers Sees Victory in Mississippi Race," New York Post, February 22, 1968
ŸSIMPSON J. A. and E. S. C. Weiner prepared 1989, The Oxford English Dictionary, Second Edition, Volume 20, Wave-Zyxt, Bibliography, Oxford: Clarendon Press, New York: Oxford University Press.


¡¡Policy Development in Japan

Under Koizumi administration (2001 April 26 - 2006 September 26) workfare policy has also implemented in Japan. It was intended to support self-sufficient of people hard to get employment such as the homeless, single mothers, the disabled, public assistance recipients and so on.

For example, Supports for Self-Sufficient of the Homeless Special Measures Law was established in 2002. Amendatory Act for the Welfare of Fatherless Families and Widows was established in 2002 and Allowance for dependent children was cut. Services and Supports for Persons with Disabilities Act was established in 2005.

But the level of social security is not enough, so workfare is called a job assistance program without income security in Japan.

¡Chronology in Japan

2002 Supports for self-sufficient of the Homeless Special Measures Law

2002 Amendatory Act for the Welfare of Fatherless Families and Widows

2005 Services and Supports for Persons with Disabilities Act


¡¡Datebase

ŸBooks about Workfare
ŸLiterature about Workfare

¡¡Who's Who

ŸCharles Evers

ŸKOBAYASHI Hayato

¡¡Literature

ŸKOBAYASHI Hayato November 1, 2007 "Stated Principles and Real Intentions on Workfare"
Gendai Shiso 35(14):206

¡¡Links

Cited below in Randy Albelda and Ann Withorn eds., 2002, Lost Ground: Welfare Reform, Poverty, and Beyond, Cambridge, MA: South End Press.


¡Appendix A Guide to Organizations and Resource Centers

ŸAlliance for Justice
: Association of child welfare, environment, civil rights, mental health, child and consumer advocacy organizations.
http://www.afj.orgc
ŸAmerican Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)
: Provides ihnformation on the legal rights of welfare recipients and on lawsuits against unconstitutional aspects of welfare reform.
http://www.aclu.org
ŸAmerican Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organization (AFL-CIO)
: Federation of unions. Conducts organizing, research, education, and advocacy on labor issues.
http://www.aflcio.org
ŸAmerican Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME)
: Union of state and local public employees. Web site includes resources on welfare reform, links to federal and state information.
http://www.afscme.org/
ŸAmerican Public Human Services Association
: Umbrella group of human service administrators.
http://www.aphsa.org
ŸApplied Research Center
Research and advocacy on issues of social justice and race. Includes Welfare Advocacy Research Project (WARP)
https://www.raceforward.org/?arc=1
ŸAssociation of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN)
: Organizing in low-income and moderate-income communities.
http://www.acorn.org/
ŸCenter for an Urban Future
: Produces reports on economic development, child welfare, public education, and related issues.
http://www.nycfuture.org
ŸCenter for Community Change
: Provides organizing assistance to local groups run by low-income people.
http://www.communitychange.org
ŸCenter for Law and Social Policy (CLASP)
: Research and policy analysis on issues affecting low-income families.
http://www.clasp.org
ŸCenter for Third World Organizing
: Provides training and organizing assistance. Includes Grass Roots Welfare Organizing Leadership (GROWL)
http://ctwo.org/
ŸCenter on Budget and Policy Priorities
: Provides research and informaiton on federal and state government funding programs that affect low- and moderate-income people.
http://www.cbpp.org"
Ÿcenteronhunger.org
: Applied research, policy analysis, and advocacy on poverty and hunger.
http://www.centeronhunger.org
ŸChild Trends
: Provides research on the effects of welfare and poverty on children and other issues related to parenting.
http://www.childtrends.org
ŸChildren's Defense Fund
: Provides research, advocacy, public education, monitoring of federal agencies, and assistance to state and local groups.
http://www.childrensdefense.org
ŸCivic Change Inc.
: Conducts research on promising solutions crucial to strong communities.
http://www.civicchange.org/
ŸCoalition on Human Needs
: Alliance of more than 100 national groups addressing the needs of low-income people and other vulnerable Americans. Serves as an information clearinghouse.
http://www.chn.org/
ŸCommunity Action Partnership
: National association of federally funded local antipoverty agencies. Resources include information about the National Dialogue on Poverty.
http://www.communityactionpartnership.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=12&Itemid=41
ŸCommunity News and Information
http://www.handsnet.org
ŸEconomic Policy Institute
: Research on economic policy issues, particularly the economics of poverty, employment, inflation, industry, and problems of economic adjustment.
http://www.epi.org/
ŸFood Research and Action Center
: Provides assistance to groups working on problems of hunger and poverty.
http://www.frac.org
ŸInequality. Org
Network of journalists, writers, and researchers trying to look beyond conventional economics and its notions of prosperity and progress.
http://www.inequality.org
ŸInstitute for Global Communications - IGC
: Provides Internet services to progressive individuals and groups. Contains links to PeaceNet, WomensNet, EcoNet, and AntiracismNet.
http://www.igc.org
ŸInstitute for Research on Poverty
: Organizes academic research conferences and ublishers papers on all aspects of poverty.
http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/irp
ŸInstitute for Women's Policy Research
: Researches economic issues important to women and families, including low-wage work, poverty, welfare reform, child care, family leave, and health care. Maintains Welfare Monitoring Listserv: WELFAREM-L
http://www.iwpr.org/
ŸJobs with Justice
: Advocates for workers' rights; local chapters include coalitions of religious, labor, and community organizations active throughout the country.
http://www.jwj.org
ŸJoint Center for Politcial and Economic Studies
: Research and advocacy on the socioeconomic status of black Americans and coalition building across race lines. Includes data bank on racial populations.
http://www.jointcenter.org
ŸJoint Center for Poverty Research
: Organizes academic research conferences and publishes papers on all aspects of poverty. Housed at the Poverty, Race, and Inequality Program at
http://www.jcpr.org
ŸLow Income Networking and Communications Progect (LincProject)
: Information for and about groups of low-income people. Includes database of resources, a directory of grassroots organizations, and links to TANF reauthorization information.
http://www.lincproject.org
ŸManpower Demonstration Research Corporation (MDRC)
: Research on welfare reform, working poor people, communities, families and children, and education.
http://www.mdrc.org
ŸMathermatica Policy Research, Inc.
: For-profit research corporation. Includes studies of welfare reform.
http://www.mathematica-mpr.com
ŸNational Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
: Works to achieve equal rights through the democratic process and to eliminate racial prejudice.
http://www.naacp.org/
ŸNational Association of Neighborhoods
: Umbrella organization for community-based organizations and small businesses.
http://www.nanworld.org/index.html
ŸNational Campaign for Jobs and Income Support
: Coalition of 1,000 grassroots organizations in 40 states seeking to advance progressive antipoverty policies. Part of LincProject to elevate the importance of poverty on the national agenda.
http://www.communitychange.org
http://www.prrac.org/full_text.php?text_id=746&item_id=7788&newsletter_id=61&header=Employment+%2F+Labor+%2F+Jobs+Policy
ŸNational Center for Children in Poverty
: Research and education on children in poverty.
http://cpmcnet.columbia.edu/dept/nccp/
ŸNational Center for Law and Economic Justice
: Legal and policy organization focused on means-tested cash public assistance programs. Provides legal representation for poor people.
http://www.nclej.org/
ŸNational Coalition for the Homeless
: Information clearinghouse. Includes directory of national, statewide, and local homeless advocacy coalitions and organizations.
http://www.nationalhomeless.org
ŸNational Council of La Raza
: Umbrella organization working for civil rights and economic opportunities for Latinos.
http://www.nclr.org
ŸNational Jobs for All Coalition
: Promotes living-wage jobs and links unemployment with other issues facing the nation, such as women's rights, the environment, and economic justice.
http://www.njfac.org
ŸNational Housing Institute
: Conducts research on housing, jobs, safety, and education.
http://www.nhi.org
ŸNational Law Center on Homelessness and Poverty
: Advocates to protect rights of homeless people and to implement solutions to end homelessness through impact litigation, advocacy, and education.
http://www.nlchp.org
ŸNational Low Income Housing Coalition
: Educates the publis and organizations about low-income housing through conferences, publications, and technical assistance.
http://www.nlihc.org
ŸNational Organization for Women
: Works to end discrimination and gender inequality in all facets of life and to increase the number of women elected to political office.
http://www.now.org
ŸNational Rainbow Coalition
: Encourages the development of a progressive political leadership dedicated to economic justice, peace, and human rights.
ŸNational Urban League
: Works for racial equality for African Americans and other minorities. Fights institutional racism and provides direct service to minority communities.
http://nul.iamempowered.com/
ŸNetwork
: A national catholic social justice lobby. Includes Welfare Reform Watch Project.
http://www.networklobby.org
ŸPoverty and Race Research Action Council
: Funds research linked to organizing and advocacy on issues of poverty and race.
http://www.prrac.org/
ŸRussell Sage Foundation
: Funds research on work, income inequality, and poverty. Publishes working papers and books.
http://www.russellsage.org
ŸState Action Organization at the Center for Policy Alternatives
: Conducts research on welfare, affirmative action, domestic violence, family leave, crime, education, TANF funds, and health care.
http://www.stateaction.org
http://www.cfpa.org
ŸThe American Prospect
: Internet content from and links to a variety of liberal policy organizations, including resources on welfare.
http://www.prospect.org/
ŸThe Center on Urban Poverty and Community Development
: Clearinghouse on census information, statistics, and welfare programs.
http://povertycenter.case.edu/
ŸUnited for a Fair Economy
: Conducts research and organizing on growing income, wage, and wealth inequality in the United States.
http://www.faireconomy.org/
ŸUS Welfare System
: Clearinghouse for policy analysis, and technical assistance on welfare reform.
http://www.welfareinfo.org
ŸUrban Institute
: Conducts research on poverty, inequality, and racial discrimination. Includes Assessing the New Federalism.
http://www.urban.org
http://newfederalism.urban.org
ŸWider Opportunities for Women
: Provides organizing, skills training, and technical assistance for women workers to achieve economic independence and equality of opportunity.
http://www.wowonline.org

¡Appendix B Guide to Government and Statistical Resources on the Internet

ŸAdministration for Children and Families - U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
: Assists state, county, and city government through funding, policy direction, and information on services to provide family assistance. Is the federal agency that administers Temporary Assistance to Needy Families. Resources include links to welfare, children, and families web pages.
https://www.acf.hhs.gov/
ŸAmerican Public Welfare Association - Welfare News in the States
: State-by-state descriptions of welfare reform initiatives.
http://www.socialwelfarehistory.com/organizations/aamerican-public-welfare-association-2/
ŸChild Welfare League of America - National Data Analysis System
: Works with state child welfare agencies to present a comprehensive interactive child welfare database: The National Data Analysis System (NDAS).
http://66.227.70.18/programs/researchdata/default.htm
ŸFederal Electronic Research and Review Extraction Tool (FERRET)
: Provides access to statistics from the Current Population Survey and the Survey of Income and Program Participation.
http://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/dis/data/resource/detail/1380
ŸFirstGov
: Links to many federal, state, city and country government Web Sites.
http://www.firstgov.org
ŸNational Association for Welfare Research and Statistics
: Aims to promote and exchange ideas for the betterment of research and statistics in the field of public welfare.
http://nawrs.org/
ŸNational Conference of State Legislatures - Welfare Reform Connection
: Provides information about state and federal actions and analyses of key welfare issues.
http://www.ncsl.org/
ŸNational Partnership for Women and Families
: Contains a valuable resource list: "Impact of recent Changes in Welfare Programs on Racial and Ethnic Communities."
http://www.nationalpartnership.org
ŸU.S. Census Bureau
: Contains statistical abstracts, housing and household economic statistics, income inequality, income statistics, and poverty graphs. Of particular interest: the Census Bureau's poverty Web site, porviding poverty definitions and the most recent national and state level poverty estimates
http://www.census.gov
ŸU.S. Government Accountability Office
: Investigative arm of Congress. Provides analysis options and recommendations for Congress to make improved and effective policy. Checks the constitutionality of legislation and evaluates use of publis funds and federal programs and activities.
http://www.gao.gov/
ŸWelfare Reform Bill of 1996: HR3734, Personal Responsibility, Work Opportunity, and Medicaid Restructuring Act of 1996
: This site offers direct and easy access to the complete text version of the welfare bill passed in 1996.
http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c104:H.R.3734:

¡Appendix C Guide to Poverty Research Materials

ŸBackground Material and Data on Programs within the Jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means (Green Book)
: Detailed information on major federal entitlement programs.
http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/GPO-CPRT-108WPRT108-6/html/GPO-CPRT-108WPRT108-6-1.htm
ŸCenter for Community Change
: Center for Community Change newsletter combining useful "how-to," commentary ,reports, and profiles of grassroots organizations.
http://www.communitychange.org
ŸCenter for Law and Social Policy Update
: Lists the most recent developments in welfare issues.
http://www.clasp.org
ŸHuman Needs Report
: Coalition on Human Needs biweekly newsletter and legislative update.
http://www.chn.org/publications/human-needs-report/
ŸInstitute for Research on Poverty
: Institute for Research on Poverty quarterly research summaries.
http://www.irp.wisc.edu/index.htm
ŸPoverty Main
: U.S. Census Bureau reports poverty data from several major household surveys and programs.
http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/
ŸPoverty & Race
: Poverty and Race Research Action Council bimonthly.
http://www.racialequityresourceguide.org/resources/resources
ŸPoverty Research News
: Joint Center for Poverty Research quarterly research summaries.
http://www.jcpr.org
ŸStatistical Abstract of the United States
: U.S. Bureau of the Census annual general economic data.
https://www.census.gov/prod/www/statistical_abstract.html


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