¡¡What is Workfare?
According to OED (Simpson and Weiner prepared 1989: 548),
Canzoneri (1968) reported that Mr. Charles Evers
prepared election campaign. Mr. Evers invented "workfare" as a program for his campaign.
But Kobayashi pointed out that New York Post (1968) may be most oldest record about workfare. A political strategy of Mr. Evers was to increase voter registration by black people without scaring white people. He used workfare to help black people, because white people did not like welfare (Kobayashi 2007).
Peck (2001) cites below,
"Workfare. Any public welfare program that requires welfare recipients to work (work + welfare = workfare) or to enroll in a formal job-training program." (Dorsey Dictionary of American Government and Politics)
CANZONERI Robert 1968, "Charles Evers: Mississippi's Representative Man?" Harper's Magazine
, 237(1418): 67-74.
2007, "The Origin and Transformation of the Idea of Workfare: From Charles Evers to Richard Nixon,"[Abstract in English] Core Ethics
, 3: 133-42.
PECK Jamie 2001, Workfare States
, New York: The Guilford Press.
New York Post 1968, "Evers Sees Victory in Mississippi Race," New York Post
, February 22, 1968
SIMPSON J. A. and E. S. C. Weiner prepared 1989, The Oxford English Dictionary
, Second Edition, Volume 20, Wave-Zyxt, Bibliography, Oxford: Clarendon Press, New York: Oxford University Press.
¡¡Policy Development in Japan
Under Koizumi administration (2001 April 26 - 2006 September 26) workfare policy has also implemented in Japan. It was intended to support self-sufficient of people hard to get employment such as the homeless, single mothers, the disabled, public assistance recipients and so on.
For example, Supports for Self-Sufficient of the Homeless Special Measures Law was established in 2002. Amendatory Act for the Welfare of Fatherless Families and Widows was established in 2002 and Allowance for dependent children was cut. Services and Supports for Persons with Disabilities Act was established in 2005.
But the level of social security is not enough, so workfare is called a job assistance program without income security in Japan.
¡Chronology in Japan
2002 Supports for self-sufficient of the Homeless Special Measures Law
2002 Amendatory Act for the Welfare of Fatherless Families and Widows
2005 Services and Supports for Persons with Disabilities Act
Books about Workfare
Literature about Workfare
November 1, 2007 "Stated Principles and Real Intentions on Workfare"
Cited below in Randy Albelda and Ann Withorn eds., 2002, Lost Ground: Welfare Reform, Poverty, and Beyond
, Cambridge, MA: South End Press.
¡Appendix A Guide to Organizations and Resource Centers
Alliance for Justice
: Association of child welfare, environment, civil rights, mental health, child and consumer advocacy organizations.
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)
: Provides ihnformation on the legal rights of welfare recipients and on lawsuits against unconstitutional aspects of welfare reform.
American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organization (AFL-CIO)
: Federation of unions. Conducts organizing, research, education, and advocacy on labor issues.
American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME)
: Union of state and local public employees. Web site includes resources on welfare reform, links to federal and state information.
American Public Human Services Association
: Umbrella group of human service administrators.
Applied Research Center
Research and advocacy on issues of social justice and race. Includes Welfare Advocacy Research Project (WARP)
Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN)
: Organizing in low-income and moderate-income communities.
Center for an Urban Future
: Produces reports on economic development, child welfare, public education, and related issues.
Center for Community Change
: Provides organizing assistance to local groups run by low-income people.
Center for Law and Social Policy (CLASP)
: Research and policy analysis on issues affecting low-income families.
Center for Third World Organizing
: Provides training and organizing assistance. Includes Grass Roots Welfare Organizing Leadership (GROWL)
Center on Budget and Policy Priorities
: Provides research and informaiton on federal and state government funding programs that affect low- and moderate-income people.
: Applied research, policy analysis, and advocacy on poverty and hunger.
: Provides research on the effects of welfare and poverty on children and other issues related to parenting.
Children's Defense Fund
: Provides research, advocacy, public education, monitoring of federal agencies, and assistance to state and local groups.
Civic Change Inc.
: Conducts research on promising solutions crucial to strong communities.
Coalition on Human Needs
: Alliance of more than 100 national groups addressing the needs of low-income people and other vulnerable Americans. Serves as an information clearinghouse.
Community Action Partnership
: National association of federally funded local antipoverty agencies. Resources include information about the National Dialogue on Poverty.
Community News and Information
Economic Policy Institute
: Research on economic policy issues, particularly the economics of poverty, employment, inflation, industry, and problems of economic adjustment.
Food Research and Action Center
: Provides assistance to groups working on problems of hunger and poverty.
Network of journalists, writers, and researchers trying to look beyond conventional economics and its notions of prosperity and progress.
Institute for Global Communications - IGC
: Provides Internet services to progressive individuals and groups. Contains links to PeaceNet, WomensNet, EcoNet, and AntiracismNet.
Institute for Research on Poverty
: Organizes academic research conferences and ublishers papers on all aspects of poverty.
Institute for Women's Policy Research
: Researches economic issues important to women and families, including low-wage work, poverty, welfare reform, child care, family leave, and health care. Maintains Welfare Monitoring Listserv: WELFAREM-L
Jobs with Justice
: Advocates for workers' rights; local chapters include coalitions of religious, labor, and community organizations active throughout the country.
Joint Center for Politcial and Economic Studies
: Research and advocacy on the socioeconomic status of black Americans and coalition building across race lines. Includes data bank on racial populations.
Joint Center for Poverty Research
: Organizes academic research conferences and publishes papers on all aspects of poverty. Housed at the Poverty, Race, and Inequality Program at
Low Income Networking and Communications Progect (LincProject)
: Information for and about groups of low-income people. Includes database of resources, a directory of grassroots organizations, and links to TANF reauthorization information.
Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation (MDRC)
: Research on welfare reform, working poor people, communities, families and children, and education.
Mathermatica Policy Research, Inc.
: For-profit research corporation. Includes studies of welfare reform.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
: Works to achieve equal rights through the democratic process and to eliminate racial prejudice.
National Association of Neighborhoods
: Umbrella organization for community-based organizations and small businesses.
National Campaign for Jobs and Income Support
: Coalition of 1,000 grassroots organizations in 40 states seeking to advance progressive antipoverty policies. Part of LincProject to elevate the importance of poverty on the national agenda.
National Center for Children in Poverty
: Research and education on children in poverty.
National Center for Law and Economic Justice
: Legal and policy organization focused on means-tested cash public assistance programs. Provides legal representation for poor people.
National Coalition for the Homeless
: Information clearinghouse. Includes directory of national, statewide, and local homeless advocacy coalitions and organizations.
National Council of La Raza
: Umbrella organization working for civil rights and economic opportunities for Latinos.
National Jobs for All Coalition
: Promotes living-wage jobs and links unemployment with other issues facing the nation, such as women's rights, the environment, and economic justice.
National Housing Institute
: Conducts research on housing, jobs, safety, and education.
National Law Center on Homelessness and Poverty
: Advocates to protect rights of homeless people and to implement solutions to end homelessness through impact litigation, advocacy, and education.
National Low Income Housing Coalition
: Educates the publis and organizations about low-income housing through conferences, publications, and technical assistance.
National Organization for Women
: Works to end discrimination and gender inequality in all facets of life and to increase the number of women elected to political office.
National Rainbow Coalition
: Encourages the development of a progressive political leadership dedicated to economic justice, peace, and human rights.
National Urban League
: Works for racial equality for African Americans and other minorities. Fights institutional racism and provides direct service to minority communities.
: A national catholic social justice lobby. Includes Welfare Reform Watch Project.
Poverty and Race Research Action Council
: Funds research linked to organizing and advocacy on issues of poverty and race.
Russell Sage Foundation
: Funds research on work, income inequality, and poverty. Publishes working papers and books.
State Action Organization at the Center for Policy Alternatives
: Conducts research on welfare, affirmative action, domestic violence, family leave, crime, education, TANF funds, and health care.
The American Prospect
: Internet content from and links to a variety of liberal policy organizations, including resources on welfare.
The Center on Urban Poverty and Community Development
: Clearinghouse on census information, statistics, and welfare programs.
United for a Fair Economy
: Conducts research and organizing on growing income, wage, and wealth inequality in the United States.
US Welfare System
: Clearinghouse for policy analysis, and technical assistance on welfare reform.
: Conducts research on poverty, inequality, and racial discrimination. Includes Assessing the New Federalism.
Wider Opportunities for Women
: Provides organizing, skills training, and technical assistance for women workers to achieve economic independence and equality of opportunity.
¡Appendix B Guide to Government and Statistical Resources on the Internet
Administration for Children and Families - U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
: Assists state, county, and city government through funding, policy direction, and information on services to provide family assistance. Is the federal agency that administers Temporary Assistance to Needy Families. Resources include links to welfare, children, and families web pages.
American Public Welfare Association - Welfare News in the States
: State-by-state descriptions of welfare reform initiatives.
Child Welfare League of America - National Data Analysis System
: Works with state child welfare agencies to present a comprehensive interactive child welfare database: The National Data Analysis System (NDAS).
Federal Electronic Research and Review Extraction Tool (FERRET)
: Provides access to statistics from the Current Population Survey and the Survey of Income and Program Participation.
: Links to many federal, state, city and country government Web Sites.
National Association for Welfare Research and Statistics
: Aims to promote and exchange ideas for the betterment of research and statistics in the field of public welfare.
National Conference of State Legislatures - Welfare Reform Connection
: Provides information about state and federal actions and analyses of key welfare issues.
National Partnership for Women and Families
: Contains a valuable resource list: "Impact of recent Changes in Welfare Programs on Racial and Ethnic Communities."
U.S. Census Bureau
: Contains statistical abstracts, housing and household economic statistics, income inequality, income statistics, and poverty graphs. Of particular interest: the Census Bureau's poverty Web site, porviding poverty definitions and the most recent national and state level poverty estimates
U.S. Government Accountability Office
: Investigative arm of Congress. Provides analysis options and recommendations for Congress to make improved and effective policy. Checks the constitutionality of legislation and evaluates use of publis funds and federal programs and activities.
Welfare Reform Bill of 1996: HR3734, Personal Responsibility, Work Opportunity, and Medicaid Restructuring Act of 1996
: This site offers direct and easy access to the complete text version of the welfare bill passed in 1996.
¡Appendix C Guide to Poverty Research Materials
Background Material and Data on Programs within the Jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means (Green Book)
: Detailed information on major federal entitlement programs.
Center for Community Change
: Center for Community Change newsletter combining useful "how-to," commentary ,reports, and profiles of grassroots organizations.
Center for Law and Social Policy Update
: Lists the most recent developments in welfare issues.
Human Needs Report
: Coalition on Human Needs biweekly newsletter and legislative update.
Institute for Research on Poverty
: Institute for Research on Poverty quarterly research summaries.
: U.S. Census Bureau reports poverty data from several major household surveys and programs.
Poverty & Race
: Poverty and Race Research Action Council bimonthly.
Poverty Research News
: Joint Center for Poverty Research quarterly research summaries.
Statistical Abstract of the United States
: U.S. Bureau of the Census annual general economic data.
UP:August 14, 2009 REV: August 15, October 15, October 21 December 21, January 7, 2010, January 14, 2010, February 7, 2010, June 8, 2015
Produced by Hayato Kobayashi