The external framework described above does not itself depart from the orthodox understanding of modern ideas like the principle of "nullum crimen, nulla poena sine praevia lege poenali (no crime or punishment without a (previously existing) penal law)." But we must not think of the "modern" period as being characterized only by this way of thinking. Modern history is the history of various kinds of involvement. In the previous section I mentioned the prior assumption of formulae or functions regarding interests. The interests of individual parties are taken as premises, and they are then expected to behave in accordance with their own predictions based on these interests. As a result, the transparency of rules and standards is thought of as effective. In practice, however, this assumed function or faculty of reason does not in fact exist (or at least is not sufficient to play the role assigned to it). For example, sufficient numbers of people who act in accordance with their own interests cannot be found within the labor market. There are many workers who work only enough to maintain themselves and cease working once they have earned enough to get by. This pattern of behavior is rational. But there are also those who want to take on more work even after their basic needs are met. We might attempt to pay these workers more. But workers will not necessarily respond to this approach. In some cases, those paid more for their time may respond by working less. This is also a completely rational pattern of behavior. As a result, it is not possible to raise the desired labor forced through a system of wage incentives. In other words, workers do not possess the characteristics ascribed to them by this approach◆6. Those who encounter this kind of situation and are troubled by it deal with it in different ways. If we divide them up we get something like what is shown in Figure 6.1. And this is all of them. As I stated at the beginning of this chapter, when it comes to production everything conceivable has been (is being) done.