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panoptisme|一望監視方式


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◆立岩 真也 1997/09/05 『私的所有論』,勁草書房,445+66p. ISBN-10: 4326601175 ISBN-13: 978-4326601172 6300 [amazon][kinokuniya] ※
◆立岩 真也 2013/05/20 『私的所有論 第2版』,生活書院・文庫版,973p. ISBN-10: 4865000062 ISBN-13: 978-4865000061 1800+ [amazon][kinokuniya] ※
Tateiwa, Shinya(立岩 真也) 2016 On Private Property, English Version, Kyoto Books

 chap.6
 One approach is to change the behavior or set of actions in question - to establish a fixed manner of behavior, and then work to bring the current behavior in line with this model through controlling it directly. One of the aims here is to improve the precision of control over the behavior in question. This may involve making the supervisory mechanisms in a factory function more accurately, for example, or creating factories themselves as organs of supervision7. This technique or strategy can be said to nearly overlap what Foucault called "discipline" 8, or at least that part of it referred to concretely in Discipline and Punish (Foucault [1973 = 1975]), and it is for this sort of purpose that the famous "panopticon" 9 facility was conceived.

 chap.6 note 9
 See Uchida [1990:176-189]. This concrete structure is sufficiently well known to require no explanation - an individual may be observed at any time, but the observer is a mechanism invisible to the observed, and once the observed becomes accustomed to regulating their own behavior according to what actions are allowed there is no longer any need for constant observation. No doubt in part because it is such a tidy schema, in most cases this (alone) is pointed to, and a "system" in which I am the "subject" and the observer of my own actions is described. But the sort of panoramic observation in the form of a concrete apparatus used in institutions like prisons can only exist under the assumption that it is possible for observers to actually exist. This apparatus is created to optimize the efficiency of observation used in discipline, and its connection to knowledge is particularly important. Regarding the academic historical processes related to the formation of a "discipline" society, Foucault writes, "It was this link, proper to the technological systems, that made possible within the disciplinary element the formation of clinical medicine, psychiatry, child psychology, educational psychology, the rationalization of labour" (Foucault 1975=1995:224), and here asserts the importance of the invention of systems of panoramic observation (Foucault [1975=1977:224]).

 「◇09 内田隆三[1990:176-180]、等。その具体的な仕組みについてはよく知られているから紹介するまでもない――常に監視されうるが、監視者は監視される者には不可視な装置であり、監視される者は視線の可能性により自ら行為を規制してしまい、常時の監視が不要になる。図式として随分すっきりとしているためもあるだろう、多くの人によってそれ(だけ)が取り出され、私が私の行為の監視者、「主体」になる「機制」が語られた。だが少なくとも監獄等で採用された具体的な装置としての一望監視方式は、監視者が現実にいる可能性があるという前提の下にのみ成立する。この装置は、まず規律・訓練のための監視を最大限の効率で達成するものであり、特に知との結びつきが重要である。フーコーは、規律・訓練的な社会の形成に結びつく学問的な歴史過程に関し、「臨床医学・精神医学・児童心理学・心理的教育学・労働管理化などが、規律・訓練の構成要素として形成される」と述べ、ここで一望監視方式の発明の重要性を言う(Foucault[1975=1977:224])。▽425」


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