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Preventive Vaccination

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¡Chronology in Japan

1945 (September 22nd)
The Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (GHQ) issues a memorandum regarding public health measures
(A list of actions to be taken in response to the current state of the health system and healthcare facilities)

1946 (March 26th)
Revision of regulations concerning infectious disease laboratory smallpox vaccines and the sale of blood serum

1946 (April 2nd)
Promulgation of the gNational Health Systemh (implemented April 1st of the following year)

1946 (July 9th)
Japanese encephalitis is designated as a disease against which preventative measures are to be taken according to the Infectious Disease Prevention Act

1946 (August 5th)
Enactment of gInspection regulations for bacteriological medication for the prevention of gdiphtheriahh

1946 (September 13th)
Establishment of a public health inspector system

1946 (November 11th)
gInspection regulations for 'diphtheria' blood serum and related products/medications and tetanic blood serum and related products/medicationsh

1946 (November 18th)
Establishment of health offices in 12 prefectures beginning with Kyoto prefecture

1947 (January 10th)
When Ministry of Health and Welfare announces transfer to state control of Japan medical group tuberculosis sanatoriums, a movement in opposition to this policy arises

1947 (February 6th)
Announcement of synthetic resin plombage treatment for tuberculosis

1947 (March 5th)
Establishment of gRegulations on the reporting of infectious diseasesh on the basis of a GHQ memorandum
(Medical professionals are obligated to report 13 infectious diseases apart from legally designated infectious diseases)

1947 (March 6th)
Implementation of tuberculosis examination countermeasures for people returning to Japan

1947 (March 17th)
GHQ issues a memorandum on strengthening tuberculosis countermeasures

1947 (April 1st)
Management of 93 Japan medical group tuberculosis sanatoriums transferred to the national government and local governments

1947 (April 7th)
GHQ issues a memorandum on the expansion and strengthening of health centers

1947 (April 26th)
Promulgation/enactment of the gQuarantine station administration systemh
(Quarantine stations are brought under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Health and Welfare)

1947 (May 8th)
Pharmaceutical system committee decides on a final proposal for revision of the National Medical Care Act and Pharmaceutical Affairs Act

1947 (May 21st)
Promulgation/implementation of gPreventative Health Center Systemh

1947 (September 5th)
Promulgation/implementation of revisions of the Infectious Disease Prevention Act and other legislation
(Under the Infectious Disease Prevention Act, Tuberculosis Prevention Act, gTrachomah Prevention Act, and Parasite Prevention Act the rate of government subsidy increased to 50%)
Promulgation of revisions to the Health Center Act (implemented January 1st, 1948)
Expansion of health center operations, assignment of nutritionists
Establishment under the direction of prefectural and municipal governments

1948 (March 6th)
Promulgation/implementation of Revised Infectious Disease Prevention Act
(The director of the nearest health center replaces the nearest police station in accordance with the Police Act)

1948 (March)
The Tokyo Suginami Health Center is established as a model health center
(A model health center is then established in each prefecture based on it)

1948 (April 2nd)
30 cities with a population of over 150,000 are designated as cities in which a health center must be established
(Revised implementation of the Health Center Act)

1948 (April 7th)
Official announcement of gEssential points concerning the establishment of regional public health research centersh
(Plan for the integrated maintenance of facilities that provide health-related testing such as local authority bacterial inspections, public health examinations, etc.)

1948 (April 8th)
Enactment, promulgation/implementation of gRegulations for the Implementation of the Health Center Acth

1948 (April 14th)
gSchool cleanlinessh instructions issued

1948 (May 28th)
GHQ issues orders concerning the prevention of typhoid diseases in Japan

1948 (June 30th)
Promulgation of gPreventive Vaccination Acth (implemented from July 1st) Designation of small pox, diphtheria, abdominal typhus, paratyphus, pertussis, tuberculosis, exanthematous typhus, cholera, plague, scarlet fever, influenza, and viral disease as diseases to be vaccinated for, regulation of how vaccinations are to be handled

1948 (July 29th)
Promulgation/implementation of the gPharmaceutical Affairs Acth (Registration of manufacturers of pharmaceutical products, adoption of a pharmaceutical inspector system, etc. Abolishment other regulations including those on quasi-drugs)

1948 (July 30th)
Promulgation of the gMedical Care Acth (implemented October 27)
Increased standards for hospitals (from 10 to 20 beds)
general hospital system
limitations on clinicsf institutionalization of patients
establishment of legal standards for staffing at each [type of] facility
regulation of maternity centers
establishment of public medical care institutions system
strengthening of restrictions on advertising

1948 (September 15th)
Ministry of Health and Welfare announces implementation outline for measures to improve the health of mothers and children (social welfare)

1948 (November 11th)
Adoption of gRules for the implementation of preventative vaccinationh
(Small pox, diphtheria, abdominal typhus, paratyphus, cholera)

1948 (November 16th)
Diphtheria vaccination tragedy occurs
(84 people (68 in Kyoto and 16 in Shimane) were killed when a batch of vaccines passed government inspections despite containing [insufficiently detoxified] diphtheria toxoid)

1948 (Autumn)
Pertussis vaccine tragedy occurs, 65 people are killed

1949 (March 23rd)
Announcement of gPreventive health center trainee regulationsh

1949 (May 19th)
Promulgation of Revised Prevention of Infectious Diseases Act (implemented June 1st)
EElimination of regulations concerning public health cooperatives
ETransfer of [control of] resident prefectural disease control staff to the prefectures as disease prevention supervisors and disease prevention specialists
EClarification of the cost burden for national and local public entities

1949 (May 31st)
Promulgation of the gNational Council on Health Statistics Ordinanceh (implemented June 1st)

1949 (September 6th)
Enactment/promulgation of gRegulations for the inspection of specific pharmaceutical productsh (implemented September 10th)
EEight products including sulfathiazole are designated as pharmaceutical products to receive national inspections for the first time

1949 (September 22nd)
Plan to secure domestic production of streptomycin, cabinet approval

1949 (September 24th)
Ministry of Health and Welfare enacts, promulgates/implements gBCG vaccine (dry) standardsh

1949 (December 20th)
Enactment (notification) of gStreptomycin standardsh based on the Pharmaceutical Affairs Act

1949
State purchasing of vaccines begins

1950 (February 15th)
Announcement of gguidelines for the implementation of pertussis vaccinationh

1950 (March 28th)
Revision of the Infectious Disease Prevention Act
EManagement authority is given to mayors of cities in which health centers are established

1950 (May 30th)
Promulgation/enactment of the gAct regarding special exceptions concerning state funding in accordance with the Infectious Disease Prevention Act and other regulationsh
EAdjustment through the implementation of the Local Government Fiscal Equalization Grant Act

1950 (July 7th)
Partial revision/implementation of prevention of infectious disease ordinances
EResponsibility for regions outside of cities/regions in which health centers are established assigned to prefectural governments

1950 (September 22nd)
Ministry of Health and Welfare enacts gRegulations for the inspection of antibiotic pharmaceutical productsh

1950 (September 27th)
Approval of plans for the establishment of a tuberculosis countermeasures headquarters

1950 (October 28th)
Permission for the domestic production of streptomycin granted

1950 (November 16th)
Establishment of tuberculosis countermeasures headquarters

1951 (February 26th)
Establishment of the first blood bank corporation, Nippon Blood Bank, Inc.

1951 (March 31st)
Promulgation of the gTuberculosis Prevention Acth
EProvision of tuberculosis exams
ERegistration of tuberculosis patients
EEstablishment of rules for state coverage of medical expenses

1951 (April 2nd)
Promulgation/enactment of Revised Preventive Vaccinations Act
Regarding general practitioners, voluntarily accepted vaccinations are also to be viewed as legislated preventive vaccinations

1951 (May 16th)
Membership in the World Health Organization (WHO)
EJapanfs membership approved at the 4th WHO World Health Assembly

1951 (May 16th)
Enactment of gSeaman preventive vaccination regulationsh

1951 (June 6th)
Promulgation of the gQuarantine Acth

1951 (October 13th)
Ministry of Health and Welfare enacts gRegulations for medical care provision by medical care institutions designated under the Tuberculosis Prevention Acth

1951 (October 14th)
Debate over the safety of BCG
E7th sectional meeting of the Science Council of Japan submits an opinion on the judicious use of BCG vaccines to the Minister of Health and Welfare
The Ministry of Health and Welfare announces the continued use of the vaccines

1951 (November 8th)
Responding to the debate over the safety of BCG, the tuberculosis prevention council issues an opinion that this vaccine is safe and effective

1951
Tuberculosis falls to the second leading cause of death

1952 (January 11th)
The Ministry of Health and Welfare approves an increase in public spending on the treatment of tuberculosis

1952 (January 18th)
The Ministry of Health and Welfare reconfirms the safety and effectiveness of BCG

1952 (March 8th)
Announcement of gJapanese antibiotic pharmaceutical standardsh based on the Pharmaceutical Affairs Act
EUnification of individual standards

1952 (May 28th)
Conference on the promotion of tuberculosis countermeasures opens with a commemoration of the halving of tuberculosis deaths

1952 (June 4th)
The Ministry of Health and Welfare announces gTuberculosis treatment standardsh

1952 (June 23rd)
Announcement establishing the treatment fees for national sanatoriums

1953 (May 9th)
Enactment of gInstructions for the implementation of influenza vaccinationsh

1953 (September 24th)
National health survey is designated as designated statistical data

1953 (November 1st)
The Ministry of Health and Welfare conducts a national health survey
Illness, the state of treatment, treatment costs, living costs, types of households, etc.

1954 (March 13th)
Release of the results of a survey on the current state of tuberculosis
(2,920,000 patients, survey period July to October 1952)

1954 (June 1st)
Promulgation/implementation of the Revised Infectious Disease Prevention Act
EAbolition of regulations on the reporting of infectious diseases, integration within the Infectious Disease Prevention Act
EReclassification of Japanese encephalitis from a designated infectious disease to a legally designated infectious disease

1954 (September 4th)
Ministry of Health and Welfare presents plan to strengthen tuberculosis countermeasures

1955 (February 4th)
Ministry of Health and Welfare establishes a headquarters for influenza countermeasures and prepares vaccines for 200,000 people
EInfluenza is prevalent throughout the country

1955 (June 1st)
Beginning this month various measures are implemented to improve the treatment of tuberculosis patients living at home, including a 60% increase in nutritional supplements, expanded range of applicability, diligence deductions for wage-earners, etc.
Revision of Infectious Disease Prevention Act
EExtermination of rodents and insects and other initiatives carried out by municipal governments.

1955 (August 1st)
Revision of the Tuberculosis Prevention Act, expansion of tuberculosis screening to all citizens

1955 (December 31st)
Planned expansion of tuberculosis wards to 260,000 beds based on the results of a survey on the current state of tuberculosis

1956 (April 11th)
Promulgation of the Revised Infectious Disease Prevention Act (implemented July 1st)
EIn conjunction with revisions to the Quarantine Act, quarantines also begin in ports other than quarantine ports which have added yellow fever and relapsing fever to the list of notifiable infectious diseases

1956 (May 1st)
Revision of regulations on the implementation of the Tuberculosis Prevention Act
EHospitalization requiring surgery convalescence becomes eligible for public funding

1956 (May 15th)
gPenicillin shockh death incident
EProfessor Tomoo Odaka dies

1956 (August 28th)
The Ministry of Health and Welfare releases guidelines on the prevention of side effects caused by penicillin pharmaceutical products

1957 (April 1st)
Ministry of Health and Welfare announces that the 1956 tuberculosis death rate was 48.6 per 100,000, one fifth of what it had been in 1943, and that tuberculosis has fallen to fifth place among causes of death
Ministry of Health and Welfare approves the implementation of free tuberculosis testing

1957 (May 28th)
Influenza rampant throughout Japan
Ministry of Health and Welfare disseminates information on countermeasures throughout the country

1957 (May)
The origin of the influenza is China. In Tokyo the type-57 virus is identified

1957 (November 6th)
The Infectious Disease Prevention Investigation Council recommends the domestic production of Salk vaccines and the designation of polio as a legally designated infectious disease

1957 (November 25th)
The National Institute of Disease Control announces that the proportion of people affected by influenza has already reached 40-60% of the population.

1957 (November 26th)
First national conference on the health of mothers and children opens

1958 (April 10th)
Promulgation of the gSchool Health Acth

1958 (April 19th)
Promulgation of the Revised Preventive Vaccinations Act
EDeletion of scarlet fever from the Preventive Vaccinations Act

1958 (June 18th)
The Infectious Disease Prevention Investigation Council recommends polio countermeasures to the Minister of Health and Welfare

1958 (July 28th)
Ministry of Health and Welfare issues operational guidelines for medical social services at health centers
EStaff in charge of medical social services are positioned as part of medical teams

1958 (August 12th)
Notification issued by both the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Health and Welfare concerning the relationship between the School Health Act and ordinances related to public health

1958 (September 17th)
The Ministry of Health and Welfare establishes gRegulations concerning the implementation of preventive vaccinationsh

1959 (January 21st)
Adoption of plans for the implementation of preventive vaccinations

1959 (June 15th)
Designation of poliomyelitis as a legally designated infectious disease under the Infectious Disease Prevention Act (notification)

1959 (September 8th)
Chiba Serum Institute begins domestic production of Salk vaccines with full-scale dissemination to be carried out the following spring

1960 (March 11th)
Central Council for Tuberculosis Prevention recommends the adoption of Kanamycin as a standard treatment for tuberculosis

1960 (April 5th)
The Ministry of Health and Welfare announces the results of a survey on the current state of tuberculosis patients
ESharp increase in new cases of the disease in patients over the age of 30

1960 (April 25th)
Issues such as social cooperation posture and measures for combatting tuberculosis in low-income social strata are debated at the national conference on the prevention of tuberculosis

1960 (August 16)
Report by the Administrative Vice Minister of Health and Welfare on improving the management of health centers
EDivision of health center standards into four types: large cities, rural communities, intermediate communities, and thinly populated regions

1960 (September 2nd)
Ministry of Health and Welfare Public Health Agency Chief issues a report on the management of health centers

1960 (September 6th)
Outbreak of polio in Hokkaido
EMore than 1,000 patients

1960 (September 8th)
The Japan Soviet Union Society announces that polio vaccines for 600 people have been sent from the Soviet Union
Ministry of Health and Welfare requires the importation of a much larger amount

1960 (October 6th)
Ministry of Health and Welfare approves plans for the use of preventive vaccinations to combat polio

1960 (December 1st)
Inaugural meeting of the Central Council for the Protection of Children from Polio

1960 (December 14th)
Ministry of Health and Welfare targets infants between six and eighteen months old for polio vaccinations, approves plans for preventive vaccinations in 1961

1961 (March 7th)
The Ministry of Health and Welfare conducts emergency imports of foreign made vaccines to combat polio

1961 (March 28th)
Promulgation of the revised Preventive Vaccinations Act (implemented April 1st)
EAddition of preventive vaccines for polio (poliomyelitis)

1961 (May 22nd)
Minister of Health and Welfare Furui expresses to the General Council of Trade Unions of Japan his acceptance of 100,000 doses of polio vaccines donated by the Soviet Union
(ending the dispute over whether or not these vaccines should be accepted)

1961 (May 26th)
Partial revision of the Tuberculosis Prevention Act
EPortion of medical costs born by the state is increased for patients ordered into institutions, steps are taken to strengthen tuberculosis countermeasures

1961 (June 21st)
Ministry of Health and Welfare decides to import 13,000,000 doses of live vaccines and administer large numbers of them throughout the country

1961 (June)
Polio is rampant in all 7 prefectures in Kyushu, live vaccines are administered for the first time (350,000 doses)

1961 (July 12th)
10,000,000 doses of live polio vaccine arrive from the Soviet Union, and an order is placed for 3,000,000 more from Canada (administration of the vaccines begins July 20th)

1962 (January 13th)
Ministry of Health and Welfare issues an overview of the 1961 polio outbreak
Number of patients reached a post-war high of 2,453 but decreased rapidly after widespread administration of live vaccines

1962 (January 16th)
Ministry of Health and Welfare responds to the diphtheria outbreak, implementing emergency vaccinations in areas where the outbreak is occurring and issueing a notice to increase the rate of vaccination of preschool children

1962 (January 26th)
17,000,000 doses of Canadian-made live polio vaccines arrive in Japan and are administered to children under 13 years of age

1962 (February 26th)
National meeting of the Polio Council decides on required measures concerning the treatment of the lingering effects of the disease, including coverage of galantamine, a drug treatment, by the national health insurance, and payment of all costs by the state

1962 (January 13th)
The Tuberculosis Prevention Council proposes revised standards aimed at eliminating restrictions on medical treatment of tuberculosis

1962-
Start of initiatives aimed at predicting infectious disease outbreaks

1963 (January 5th)
National Council on the Public Health Education System makes its recommendations on the future of public health education to the Minister of Health and Welfare
(Recommendations include an emphasis on strengthening the education of public health workers, confirmation of status, and assigning designations to specialists)

1963 (July 22nd)
Ministry of Health and Welfare enacts standards for oral polio vaccines

1963 (September 4th)
Completion of combined vaccine for diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus
Decision is made to start using the vaccine for preventive vaccination from spring 1964

1964 (February 8th)
Completion of a domestic polio vaccine, distribution to every prefecture (administration begins February 20th)

1964 (April 16th)
Promulgation/implementation of the Revised Preventive Vaccination Act
EVaccination for poliomyelitis becomes mandatory, use of oral polio vaccines

1964 (July 14th)
National Council for Tuberculosis Prevention recommends standards for the recognition of aftereffects of pulmonary tuberculosis

1965 (August 2nd)
Central Pharmaceutical Affairs Council makes recommendations to the Minister of Health and Welfare regarding manufacturing standards and methods of administering measles vaccines

1965 (August 18th)
Promulgation of gMaternal and Child Health Acth
EComprehensive and systematic organization of maternal and child health policies that had previously been covered by child welfare policies

1965 (August 20th)
Ministry of Health and Welfare orders nationwide strengthening of preventive measures against Japanese encephalitis

1965 (October 8th)
Minister of Health and Welfare announces biological manufacturing standards for inactivated measles vaccines and live attenuated measles vaccines

1966 (April 15th)
It is revealed that many cases of infantile tuberculosis emerged at Shinjuku Red Cross Hospital beginning in June of 1965

1968 (March 16th)
Central Pharmaceutical Affairs Council Biological Product Special Committee Measles Research Commission determines that measles vaccines should be brought in line with the KL approach

1968 (March)
Families of those who died in incidents involving preventive vaccines launch lawsuits seeking compensation from the state/pharmaceutical companies/doctors

1968 (August 27th)
Revision of measles vaccine standards (in line with the KL method)

1969 (January 17th)
Vaccine Research Center is founded

1970 (May 18th)
Demands for compensation from the national and Hokkaido governments are raised in connection with incidents involving measles vaccines

1970 (June 1st)
Promulgation/implementation of the Revised Preventive Vaccines Act
EAbdominal typhoid and paratyphoid removed from the Preventive Vaccines Act

1970 (June 15th)
Infectious disease research commission recommends making the compulsory vaccination system voluntary

1970 (June 19th)
Following many tragic incidents involving smallpox vaccines, the Minister of Health and Welfare approves halting vaccinations
(206 patients made ill, 15 deaths)

1970 (July 31st)
An emergency government policy cabinet meeting is held and the Ministry of Health and Welfare decides on a temporary relief plan for patients suffering from the aftereffects of smallpox vaccines or victims of preventive vaccine side effects
(Bereavement compensation \3,300,000, aid for aftereffects provided with a limit of between \1,300,000 and \3,300,000)

1971 (January 29th)
National Tuberculosis Prevention Council submits an opinion paper on the expansion and strengthening of tuberculosis countermeasures

1971 (February 26th)
The Japan Tuberculosis Sanitarium Association submits requests to the Minister of Health and Welfare regarding various issues including the early diagnosis of tuberculosis patients

1971 (August 16th) National Tuberculosis Prevention Council issues a recommendation to the Minister of Health and Welfare that a new drug called rifampicin be adopted as a treatment for tuberculosis under the Tuberculosis Prevention Act

1972 (July 20th)
The round-table committee (Minister of Health and Welfarefs private advisory committee) concerning health center issues submits a key issues report
(Report on issues including the formation of three levels of health centers in order to facilitate activities adherent to regions)

1973 (January 9th)
National Tuberculosis Prevention Council submits gRecommendations on tuberculosis screening and preventive vaccinations going forwardh to the Minister of Health and Welfare

1974 (June 20th)
Revision of the Tuberculosis Prevention Act
EOptimization of the timing of implementation of medical checkups, etc.

1974 (September 14th)
Ministry of Health and Welfare announces standards (GMP) regarding the production of pharmaceutical products and quality management

1974 (September 27th)
Revision of prescription medication fees

1975 (October 17th)
Central Pharmaceutical Affairs Council reports the results of its reevaluation of anti-tuberculosis medication to the Minister of Health and Welfare

1975 (December 5th)
Ministry of Health and Welfare establishes a round-table committee on issues concerning medical equipments

1976 (February 26th)
Infectious disease prevention research committee special working group reaches a conclusion on the legal character of the perpetuation of the system for providing aid to victims of incidents involving preventive vaccinations
EEstablishment of an intermediate system between social security and state compensation without acknowledging legal responsibility of the state

1976 (March 22nd)
Infectious disease prevention research committee makes recommendations to the Minister of Health and Welfare regarding diseases targeted for preventive vaccinations and aid for those whose health has been damaged by preventive vaccinations

1976 (May 11th)
Ministry of Health and Welfare submits proposed revisions of the Preventive Vaccinations Act to the 77th regular Diet session
EMajor revisions of the preventive vaccine system
ELegislation of aid measures for [those affected by] side effect incidents

1976 (June 19th)
Promulgation of Revised Preventive Vaccines Act/partial implementation (full implementation February 25th, 1977)
EEstablishment of victim aid system
ERevision of diseases covered

1976 (June 25th)
Research group on aid system for victims of pharmaceutical product side effects (an organization commissioned by the Ministry of Health and Welfare) presents its report
EProposes establishment of an enterprise fund for aid to those harmed by pharmaceutical products

1976 (July 13th)
Round-table conference on emergency medicine

1976
Ministry of Health and Welfarefs National Institute of Preventive Health produces a new-type swine flu vaccine

1977 (February 25th)
Inauguration of a damaged health aid compensation system for victims of incidences involving preventive vaccinations

¡ Around this time health promotion begins to be advocated

1977 (December 2nd)
Ministry of Health and Welfare announces an overview of proposed legislation (Ministry of Health and Welfare pharmaceutical affairs committee draft proposal) concerning aid for those whose health has been damaged by pharmaceutical products

1978 (March 16th)
Widespread flu (Hong Kong/Soviet Union type) affects 2,960,000 patients (an unprecedented number)

1978 (April 24th)
Ministry of Health and Welfare issues a municipal health center overhaul outline

1978 (May 23rd)
Abolition of the National Nutrition Council, Infectious Disease Prevention Research Committee and National Tuberculosis Prevention Council. Integration into the National Public Health Council

1978 (July 28th)
Addition of measles to the ordinance on the implementation of the Preventive Vaccines Act (children 1 to 6 years of age)

1979 (February 2nd)
The Minister of Health and Welfare requests an outline of proposed legislation for a victims of pharmaceutical side effects relief fund to the Central Pharmaceutical Affairs Council
EEstablishment of a relief fund
EProvision of disability pensions/medical costs to victims
ECollection of funds to be paid out from pharmaceutical companies

1979 (February 27th)
Cabinet approves proposed legislation for a pharmaceutical product side effect victims relief fund, submits it to the Diet on the following day (February 28th)

1979 (March 6th)
Minister of Health and Welfare/Minister of Agriculture request an outline of proposed revisions to the Pharmaceutical Affairs Act
ERecommendations submitted March 13th concerning the efficacy and safety of pharmaceutical products

1979 (June 14th)
Proposed legislation for a pharmaceutical product side effect victims relief fund, proposed legislation for revisions to the Pharmaceutical Affairs Act, abandoned without being passed into law

1979 (August 31st)
Two pieces of proposed pharmaceutical affairs legislation (legislation to revise part of the Pharmaceutical Affairs Act and legislation to create a relief fund for pharmaceutical product side effect victims) submitted by the government to the 88th extraordinary Diet session

1979 (October 1st)
Promulgation/implementation of gPharmaceutical Product Side Effect Victims Relief Fund Acth
Promulgation of Revised Pharmaceutical Affairs Act
EEnactment in law of a pharmaceutical product reevaluation system

1979 (October 15th)
Inauguration of the Pharmaceutical Product Side Effect Victims Relief Fund Organization (begins operating May 1st, 1980)

1980 (July 31st)
Ministry of Health and Welfare eliminates small pox vaccines from the list of legislated preventive vaccines

1980 (August 16th)
Ministry of Health and Welfare enacts gRegulations for management of quality and management of production of pharmaceutical productsh

1981 (March 11th)
Minister of Health and Welfare submits a request to the National Social Security Council for an overview of proposed revisions to the Medical Care Act
EFormulation of each local governmentfs regional medical care plan
EStrengthening of supervisory guidance to medical care institutions

1981 (May 26th)
Director of the Ministry of Health and Welfarefs Public Health Bureau issues a notification concerning the implementation of infectious disease surveillance activities

1981 (June 19th)
National Public Health Council issues recommendations concerning the method of implementation of tuberculosis screening

1981 (July 1st)
Ministry of Health and Welfare implements infectious disease surveillance activities

1982 (March 31st)
Ministry of Health and Welfare enacts GLP (standards for the implementation of pharmaceutical product safety testing)

1982 (July 10th)
National Public Health Council issues recommendations concerning the management of tuberculosis patients going forward

1983 (March 25)
The government submits the Revised Medical Care Act, major elements of which include ordinances concerning the formulation of regional medical care plans and the supervisory guidance of medical organizations, to the Diet (November, 1983, fails to become law following the dissolution of the House of Representatives)

1983 (April)
Higashi Osaka City is made an ordinance-designated city under the Health Center Act (number of ordinance-designated cities reaches 31)

1984 (January 5th)
National Public Health Council assembles recommendations that health services should be rapidly made adherent to municipal governments

1984 (September 6th)
Promulgation of the Revised Health Center Act
ESubsidies for the management of health centers
ERevision of grant funding based on population and area size

1985 (March 12th)
In an influenza vaccination lawsuit the Sendai municipal court affirms the causal connection between disability and vaccination and orders the rescinding of medical expenses rejections in Izumi City, Miyagi Prefecture

1985 (October 31st)
In lawsuits concerning tragedies involving vaccines for measles and other diseases the Nagoya municipal court acknowledges partial negligence in state administration of disease prevention policies and orders the state to pay compensation

1986 (February 6th)
Ministry of Health and Welfare Tuberculosis Council issues an opinion paper concerning the revision of tuberculosis treatment standards
EAdoption of improved treatments centered on the joint administration of INH (isonicotinic acid amide) and RFP (rifampicin) as a standard chemical treatment
ERegarding surgical therapy, reevaluations are also conducted concerning surgical techniques and other factors

1986 (November 10th)
National Public Health Council Infectious Disease Prevention Committee Influenza Subcommittee presents its views concerning the current state of influenza vaccination
EThe only effective method of prevention is vaccination
EVaccines are effective at both preventing infection and lessening symptoms

1987 (January 7th)
Ministry of Health and Welfare implements tuberculosis and infectious disease surveillance activities
EConnection of health centers across the country, prefectures, and designated cities to the Ministry of Health and Welfare via an online computer system

1987 (August 6th)
National Public Health Council Infectious Disease Prevention Committee submits an opinion paper concerning the immediate future of influenza vaccinations
EWithout changing the current process under the act for the time being, incorporate the views of caregivers who know the most about the state of health of those being vaccinated

1994 (September)
Creation of vaccination guidelines

1995 (October)
Revision of Preventive Vaccines Act/transition from mandating to encouraging vaccination
EShift from group to individual vaccination
EOnly BCG to be administered in group vaccinations conducted at schools

2001 (November 1st)
Creation of influenza vaccination guidelines

¡Newspaper Articles

ŸJanuary 22, 2015 "Warding off flu infections" (The Japan Times)
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/opinion/2015/01/22/editorials/warding-off-flu-infections/#.Vmey-jKhfGg

ŸOctober 4, 2014 "Vaccination: a choice between two unknowns" (The Japan Times)
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/life/2014/10/04/lifestyle/vaccination-choice-two-unknowns/#.VmeqWjKhfGg

ŸAugust 24, 2013 "Victims hit cervical cancer vaccines" (The Japan Times)
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2013/08/24/national/science-health/victims-hit-cervical-cancer-vaccines/#.VmejsTKhfGg

ŸJune 15, 2013 "Cervix vaccine issues trigger health notice" (The Japan Times)
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2013/06/15/national/cervix-vaccine-issues-trigger-health-notice/#.VmeJuzKhfGh

ŸJune 14, 2013 "HPV vaccine raises questions" (The Japan Times)
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/opinion/2013/06/14/editorials/hpv-vaccine-raises-questions/#.VmexFjKhfGg

ŸMay 23, 2011 "Hepatitis B talks progress" (The Japan Times)
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/opinion/2011/05/23/editorials/hepatitis-b-talks-progress/#.VmexjjKhfGg

ŸDecember 3, 2010 "Flu season is upon us" (The Japan Times)
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/opinion/2010/12/03/editorials/flu-season-is-upon-us/#.Vme0wjKhfGg

ŸNovember 30, 2010 "Flu prevention advice nothing to sneeze at" (The Japan Times)
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2010/11/30/reference/flu-prevention-advice-nothing-to-sneeze-at/#.Vmex_zKhfGg

ŸNovember 6, 2010 "Compensating hepatitis B victims" (The Japan Times)
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/opinion/2010/11/06/editorials/compensating-hepatitis-b-victims/#.VmezdDKhfGg

ŸMay 27, 2010 "Hepatitis B compensation" (The Japan Times)
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/opinion/2010/05/27/editorials/hepatitis-b-compensation/#.Vme1vjKhfGg

ŸJanuary 11, 2006 "77 people may have had weak strain of bird flu" (The Japan Times)
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2006/01/11/national/77-people-may-have-had-weak-strain-of-bird-flu/#.Vme1VjKhfGg

ŸAugust 19, 2003 "Women getting rubella despite vaccinations" (The Japan Times)
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2003/08/19/national/women-getting-rubella-despite-vaccinations/#.VmetBDKhfGg

ŸAugust 13, 2002 "Young women more prone to rubella" (The Japan Times)
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2002/08/13/national/young-women-more-prone-to-rubella/#.VmeyWjKhfGg

ŸNovember 3, 2001 "Health ministry to start rubella vaccination drive" (The Japan Times)
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2001/11/03/national/health-ministry-to-start-rubella-vaccination-drive/#.VmesYzKhfGg





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