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◆立岩 真也 1997/09/05 『私的所有論』,勁草書房,445+66p. ISBN-10: 4326601175 ISBN-13: 978-4326601172 6300 [amazon][kinokuniya] ※
◆立岩 真也 2013/05/20 『私的所有論 第2版』,生活書院・文庫版,973p. ISBN-10: 4865000062 ISBN-13: 978-4865000061 1800+ [amazon][kinokuniya] ※
Tateiwa, Shinya(立岩 真也) 2016 On Private Property, English Version, Kyoto Books

 One approach is to change the behavior or set of actions in question - to establish a fixed manner of behavior, and then work to bring the current behavior in line with this model through controlling it directly. One of the aims here is to improve the precision of control over the behavior in question. This may involve making the supervisory mechanisms in a factory function more accurately, for example, or creating factories themselves as organs of supervision7. This technique or strategy can be said to nearly overlap what Foucault called "discipline" 8, or at least that part of it referred to concretely in Discipline and Punish (Foucault [1973 = 1975]), and it is for this sort of purpose that the famous "panopticon"9 facility was conceived. Examining the sorts of techniques that were developed and actions that were carried out in pursuing this approach is itself an interesting topic, but it is not one I will take up in this book.

  •  "These methods, which made possible the meticulous control of the operations of the body, which assured the constant subjection of its forces and imposed upon them a relation of docility-utility, might be called "disciplines." (Foucault [1975=1977:143, =1995:137)
     Foucault presents "the art of distribution," the "control of activity," "the organization of geneses" and "the composition of forces" (Foucalt [1975, English trans. 1977,1995:141-162]) as four techniques of "discipline. These techniques can be seen as placement in the space of each individual, the control of chronological sequences of actions (unified structure), the formation of behavior/actions through discipline, and the combining of the actions of various individuals (combined structure); this framework can be further simplified by taking the "combined structure" of actions and the "unified structure" of actions as basic elements, and viewing organization/control in the space in question as being related to the latter while describing the mastery/formation of actions as something separate. "Hierarchical observation," "normalizing judgement" and "examination" are then put forward as "the means of correct training" used to obtain these results. We can further organize these methods by noting that "observation" is required to pass the judgements necessary to bring about appropriate behaviors/sequences of behaviors and "normalizing judgements" are required for the same purpose ("examination" includes both of these elements). To summarize, we have appropriate unified and combined structures of actions/behavior, discipline as a means of preparation for these structures, and observation and judgement as a means of implementing this system. This is the technique of discipline described in this section of the text. (Excerpted from Chapter 3 of Tateiwa [1985])


     「◇08 「身体の運用への綿密な取締りを可能にし、体力の恒常的な束縛をゆるぎのないものとし、体力に従順=効用の関係を強制するこうした方法こそが《規律・訓練discipline》と名づけうるものである。」(Foucault[1975=1977:143])▽424
     フーコーは規律・訓練の四つの技術として「配分の技術」「活動の取締り」「段階的形成の編制」「さまざまの力の組立」をあげる(Foucault[1975=1977:147-171]) 。これらは、個々人の空間への配置、行為の時間的な連続(統合構造) の統制、行為の訓練による形成、個々人の行為の組み合わせ(連合構造)と捉えられ、さらにこれを整理すれば、まず、行為の連合構造と行為の統合構造の二要素をあげ、空間上の配置を後者との関係で捉え、行為の習熟−形成をまた別のものとして記述できよう。そして、「良き訓育の手段」としてあげられる「監視」「制裁」(両者の結合としての)「試験」はこれらを得るための手段であり、適切な(諸)行為、(諸)行為間の連鎖を得るための判断を下すための「観察」と、同じものを得るための「制裁」(試験は両方の要素を含む)とも整理できる。以上、行為の適切な統合構造と連合構造、そのための準備としての訓練、それらを得るための観察と制裁。これが、この書のこの部分で述べられている規律・訓練という技術である(以上、立岩[1985]第3章)。」

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