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◆立岩 真也 1997/09/05 『私的所有論』,勁草書房,445+66p. ISBN-10: 4326601175 ISBN-13: 978-4326601172 6300 [amazon][kinokuniya] ※
◆立岩 真也 2013/05/20 『私的所有論 第2版』,生活書院・文庫版,973p. ISBN-10: 4865000062 ISBN-13: 978-4865000061 1800+ [amazon][kinokuniya] ※
Tateiwa, Shinya(立岩 真也) 2016 On Private Property, English Version, Kyoto Books

 The ill-effects of using an examination system as a means of determining who should be successful in life were already being pointed out in the 19th century. Reductions were observed in the birthrate and in the number of farmers. There was also an increase in the number of young suicides. In this context, and against a backdrop of a class of young people who had failed to succeed at school, opposition to a supportive value system based on achievement and equality increased in the form of nationalist movements attacking Jews (who focused intensively on education and excelled academically) such as the Action Francaise. Sakurai [1984] makes a noteworthy assertion that the "anomie" described by Durkheim in "Suicide" (Durkheim [1897]) can be thought of as something arising out of new norms being formed rather than from norms being relaxed or dismantled. On the development of primary education in France see Uemura [1985].

 ◆14 出世の手段としての試験制度の弊害が一九世紀にはすでに指摘される。出生率の減少、また、農業従事者の減少がみられる。さらに青少年の自殺が増大する。こうした中で、脱落した青年者層を背景として、業績と平等という支配的な価値体系に反撥し、(教育熱心で、学業成績の優秀な) ユダヤ人を攻撃するナショナリズム運動、アクシオン・フランセーズが拡大していく。『自殺論』(Durkheim[1897=1968])でデュルケームの言う「アノミー」が、規範の弛緩、規範の解体というより、むしろ、このように新たに編成された規範に起因するものと考えられると桜井哲夫[1984]が述べているのが注目される。フランスにおける初等教育の進展について上村祥二[1985]。

Durkheim, Emile 
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