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Technologies and Ethics concerning Reproduction:
From Japanese/European Viewpoints

KOKADO Minori, YOSHIDA Kashimi & MATSUBARA Yoko (Eds.) March 31, 2014
Report Issued by Research Center for Ars Vivendi of Ritsumeikan University, Vol.22, 240p. ISSN 1882-6539

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KOKADO Minori, YOSHIDA Kashimi & MATSUBARA Yoko (Eds.) March 31, 2014 Technologies and Ethics concerning Reproduction: From Japanese/European Viewpoints, Report Issued by Research Center for Ars Vivendi of Ritsumeikan University, Vol.22, 240p. ISSN 1882-6539※

Technologies and Ethics concerning Reproduction: From Japanese/European Viewpoints

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Administrative Office, Research Center for Ars Vivendi at Ritsumeikan University
56-1 Kitamachi, Tojiin, Kita-ku, Kyoto, Japan 603-8577
E-mail: ars-vive@st.ritsumei.ac.jp
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■Table of Contents

Foreword  KOKADO Minori 5-7
Part 1 Prenatal Diagnosis
1 Lecture Record of the Ars Vivendi Seminar "Technology and Ethics on Prenatal Diagnosis"
1-1 Current Condition of Prenatal Diagnosis: From the Position of the Certified Genetic Counselor   CHANG Hyangri 12-39
1-2 Controversies over Prenatal Diagnosis: With Emphasis on Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis  TOSHIMITSU Keiko 40-61
1-3 Discussion 62-68

2 Article
2-1 Governance of NIPT in Japan: Until the Start of Clinical Research  MATSUBARA Yoko 69-85

Part 2 Reproductive Technologies
1 Public Symposium iPS/Embryo-stem Cells and Reproductive Technologies: The Academic Achievements, Technological Application, and Ethical Issues
1-1 How Should State-of-the-art Medical Technology Be So that Human Beings Can Live as Such?" TSUGE Azumi 88-105
1-2 What iPS Has Shown and Demolished YASHIRO Yoshimi 106-128
1-3 Questions and Discussions  129-164

2 Articles
2-1  KinTra-A Danish research project: When babies, bodies and bioethics are on the move   KROLØKKE Charlotte 165-177
2-2 A Baby "Made in India": Intended Motherhood and Transnational Surrogacy  MADSEN Karen Hvidtfeldt  178-190
2-3 Research on Legal Issues at the Time of Introducing Artificial Insemination by Donor in Japan: With Emphasis on Discussions over Legal Father-son Relationship  YUI Hideki 191-207
2-4 Surrogacy Tourism and Taubira Circular in France  KOKADO Minori 208-220
2-5 Disabled Children and Adoption: Ethical Issues in Japanese Child Welfare  YOSHIDA Kashimi 221-235

Afterword  YOSHIDA Kashimi 236-237


■Excerpt:

Foreword


                                                      Minori Kokado

 In the end of January, 2014, a Japanese researcher reported that she discovered a method for creating new pluripotent cells (STAP cells). She claimed that these cells can be reprogrammed by applying stress to somatic cells (Institute of Physical and Chemical Research).
 When a similar success of an experiment deriving iPS cells from somatic cells was reported, some said that with this technological breakthrough humanity solved the ethical problem of destruction of human fertilized eggs, without which we could not produce embryonic stem cells so far, but is destruction of fertilized eggs the only ethical problem we are facing? Isn't there a problem when we create reproductive cells from iPS cells and fertilize them? Is the issue of using ovum for research solved if instead of taking ovum to be used for research from a woman, we use ovum artificially derived for example from an iPS cell? Is it acceptable to use in assisted reproductive technology ovum and sperm made artificially? And how should we relate to such developments made in the field of regenerative medicine?
 This volume of the Report issued by the Research Center for Ars Vivendi has been created based on the research activities conducted in academic year 2013 by the Study Group on Ethics of Birth (Supervising Professor: Yoko Matsubara), a project which is funded for enhancing research quality of young researchers of the Research Center for Ars Vivendi, Ritsumeikan University. Please refer to the postscript by Kashimi Yoshida for the activities the Study Group on Ethics of Birth conducted so far. In academic year 2013 also, members of the Group interested in a wide range of subjects have tackled various problems including science and technology, medical care, and family all from the same angle, that is, the angle of reproduction and birth.
 This report is composed of two parts. Part I is a discussion on prenatal diagnosis and fertilized egg diagnosis (preimplantation diagnosis), which are both technologies used to choose children prior to their birth. In addition to the lectures presented at the "Ars Vivendi Seminar 2013: Technology and Ethics on Prenatal Diagnosis", an event held on August 31, 2013 by the A IV Project of the Research Center for Ars Vivendi "Ars Vivendi and Science and Technology", this report also carries a paper by Yoko Matsubara who organized the seminar.
 At the seminar, Hyangri Chang, who works as a genetic counselor with prenatal diagnosis every day, made an interactive presentation illustrating what kind of occupation genetic counseling is based on the case of advanced maternal age pregnancy. Keiko Toshimitsu, who specializes in history of science and technology, spoke on the issue of how obstetricians and gynecologists and patient organizations got involved in the practice of preimplantation diagnosis and changed the meaning of the diagnosis. The paper by Matsubara covers the history of introduction of noninvasive prenatal testing in Japan.
 Part II is dedicated to the theme of reproductive technologies, particularly assisted reproductive technology. Here we collected the lectures presented at the open symposium held by the Study Group on Ethics of Birth on December 8, 2013 entitled "iPS/Embryo-stem Cells and Reproductive Technologies: The Academic Achievements, Technological Application, and Ethical Issues" as well as five papers on reproductive technologies.
 The open symposium was organized with a view to look into the connection between regenerative medicine and assisted reproductive technology, two intricately interconnected and advancing technological pursuits. Yoshimi Yashiro, Associate Professor at Kyoto University CIRA and Azumi Tsuge, Professor at Meiji Gakuin University were invited to the symposium and spoke on the issue of how we should come to terms with the new possibilities opened by iPS cells and the various new advances made in medical technology, including regenerative medicine. Keiko Toshimitsu and Megumi Sakai (Graduate school of Core Ethics and Frontier Sciences, Ritsumeikan University), who are both members of the Study Group on Ethics of Birth, were given the role of asking questions. After their questions were answered, a number of questions from various scientific standpoints were made from the floor and a discussion ensued.
 Below I would like to give short summaries of the five papers on reproductive technologies. Kroløkke and Madsen, Associate Professors of University of Southern Denmark, are leaders of the KinTra Project, an international project researching assisted reproductive technology and child-parent relationships across the world. The two papers here were written based on the presentations they made concerning achievements of the KinTra Project at Ritsumeikan University on May 22, 2013. Translations of the papers by Kroløkke and Madsen into Japanese are to be published in March 2014 in the Ars Vivendi Journal Vol. 7 (published by the Research Center for Ars Vivendi, Ritsumeikan University). Paper by Charlotte Kroløkke was translated by Kashimi Yoshida and is entitled "KinTra-A Danish Research Project: When Babies, Bodies and Bioethics are on the Move"; Karen Hvidtfeldt Madsen's paper was translated by Hideki Yui and is entitled "A Baby "Made in India": Intended Motherhood and Transnational Surrogacy".
 The following three papers were submitted by members of the Study Group on Ethics of Birth. Paper by Hideki Yui is an inquiry into the discussion mainly by jurists and lawyers regarding the legal paternity, which ensued when the system of artificial insemination by donor was introduced in Japan. Minori Kokado introduced and inquired into the significance of a recent controversy involving surrogate birth in France, where surrogate birth is prohibited. Recently, French Justice Minister issued an order requiring the issuance of French birth certificates to children born as a result of "reproductive tourism". Kashimi Yoshida analyzed the ways 'disability' is dealt with in the adoption service and made a point that issues surrounding disabled children are not sufficiently discussed.
 I am very happy that so many researchers coming from all kinds of backgrounds became interested in submitting their papers for our project on the ethics of birth. I hope that the papers collected here will be favored by our readers and I would be delighted to receive readers’ opinions and comments regarding the points made here.
 Lastly, I would like to express my appreciation to all those who helped with the publication of this Report Vol. 22 of the Research Center for Ars Vivendi (p.5-7).


■Related Events

◆Dec. 8, 2013 "iPS/Embryo-stem Cells and Reproductive Technologies: The Academic Achievements, Technological Application, and Ethical Issues"








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