The Nature of Rationality

Nozick,Robert 1993 Princeton Univ Pr,242p.

last update:20161130


■Nozick,Robert 1993 The Nature of Rationality,Princeton Univ Pr,242p. ISBN-10: 0691020965 ISBN-13: 978-0691020969 4,081 [amazon] [kinokuniya]


 Repeatedly and successfully, the celebrated Harvard philosopher Robert Nozick has reached out to a broad audience beyond the confines of his discipline, addressing ethical and social problems that matter to every thoughtful person. Here Nozick continues his search for the connections between philosophy and "ordinary" experience. In the lively and accessible style that his readers have come to expect, he offers a bold theory of rationality, the one characteristic deemed to fix humanity's "specialness." What are principles for? asks Nozick. We could act simply on whim, or maximize our self-interest and recommend that others do the same. As Nozick explores rationality of decision and rationality of belief, he shows how principles actually function in our day-to-day thinking and in our efforts to live peacefully and productively with one another. In Nozick's view, misconceptions of rationality have resulted in many intractable philosophical problems. For example, the Kantian attempt to make principled behavior the sole ultimate standard of conduct extends rationality beyond its bounds. In this provocative volume, Nozick reformulates current decision theory to include the symbolic meaning of actions in areas from controlling impulses to fighting society's war against drugs. The author proposes a new rule of rational decision, "maximizing decision-value, " which is a weighted sum of causal, evidential, and symbolic utility. In a particularly fascinating section of the book he traces the implications of this rule for the famous Prisoner's Dilemma and for Newcomb's Problem. Rationality of belief, according to Nozick, involves two aspects: support by reasons that make the belief credible, andgeneration by a process that reliably produces true beliefs. A new evolutionary account explains how some factual connections are instilled in us as seemingly self-evident, thus reversing the direction of Kant's "Copernican Revolution." Proposing a theory of rational belief that inc


I How to Do Things with Principles
Intellectual Functions
Interpersonal Functions
Personal Functions
Overcoming Temptation
Sunk Costs
Symbolic Utility
Teleological Devices
II Decision-Value
Newcomb's Problem
Prisoner's Dilemma
Finer Distinctions: Consequences and Goals
III Rational Belief
Cognitive Goals
Responsiveness to Reasons
Rules of Rationality
IV Evolutionary Reasons
Reasons and Facts
Fitness and Function
Rationality's Function
V Instrumental Rationality and Its Limits
Is Instrumental Rationality Enough?
Rational Preferences
Testability, Interpretation, and Conditionalization
Philosophical Heuristics
Rationality's Imagination
Subject Index
Index of Names




*作成:焦 岩
UP: 20161130
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