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The Science and Politics of IQ

Kamin, Leon J. 1974 Lawrence Erbaum Associates→1977 Penguin Education
=1977 岩井勇二訳,『IQの科学と政治』,黎明書房

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■Kamin, Leon J. 1974 The Science and Politics of IQ, Lawrence Erbaum Associates→1977 Penguin Education※=1977 岩井勇二訳,『IQの科学と政治』,黎明書房

■引用

* from 1977 Penguin Education

1 The Pioneers of I.Q. Testing in America 19

"These men in their ultra altruistic and humane attitude, their desire to be fair to the workman, maintain that the great inequalities in social life are wrong and unjust. For example, here is a man who says, "I am wearing $12.00 shoes, there is a laborer who is wearing $3.00 shoes; why should I spend $12.00 while he can only afford $3.00? I live in a home that is artistically decorated, carpets, high-priced furniture, expensive pictures and other luxuries; there is a laborer that lives in a hovel with no carpets, no pictures, and the coarsest kind of furniture. It is not right, it is unjust"...As we have said, this argument is fallacious. It assumes the laborer is on the same mental level as the man who is defending him...

Now the fact is, that workman may have a ten year intelligence while you have a twenty. To demand for him such a home as you enjoy is as absurd as it would be to insist that every laborer should receive a graduate fellowship. How can there be such a thing as social equality with this wide range of mental capacity? The different levels of intelligence have different interests and require different treatment to make them happy...

As for an equal distribution of the wealth of the world that is equally absurd. The man of intelligence has spent his money wisely, has saved until he has enough to provide for his needs in case of sickness, while the man of low intelligence, no matter how much money he would have earned, would have spent much of it foolishly and would never have anything ahead. It is said that during the past year, the coal miners in certain parts of the country have earned more money than the operators and yet today when the mines shut down for a time, those people are the first to suffer. They did not save anything, although their whole life has taught them that mining is an irregular thing and that when they were having plenty of work they should save against the days when they do not have work...

These facts are appreciated. But it is not so fully appreciated that the cause is to be found in the fixed character of mental levels. In our ignorance we have said let us give these people one more chance - always one more chance." (Goddard [1920:99-103]. Cited in Kamin [1974:7,1977:22-23=1977:18-19])

"... in the near future intelligence tests will bring tens of thousands of these high-grade defectives under the surveillance and protection of society. This will ultimately result in curtailing the reproduction of feeble-mindedness and in the elimination of an enormous amount of crime, pauperism, and industrial inefficiency. It is hardly necessary to emphasize that the high-grade cases, of the type now so frequently overlooked, are precisely the ones whose guardianship it is most important for the State to assume." (Terman, 1916, the opening chapter from the Americanized "Stanford-Binet Test", in Terman[1975:6-7], in Kamin [1974:6→1977:20=1977:15])

'Hi-grade' or 'border-line' deficiency ; that is, I.Q.s in the 70-80 range (in terman's view, the test is particulary useful in the diagnosis of that level) "is very, very common among Spanish-Indian and Mexican families of the Southwest and also among negroes. Their dullness seems to be racial, or at least inherent in the family stocks from which they come . . . the whole question of racial differences in mental traits will have to be taken up anew and by experimental methods. The writer predicts that when this is done there will be discovered enormously significant racial differences in general intelligence, differences which cannot be wiped out by any scheme of mental culture.

Children of this group should be segregated in special classes ... They cannot master abstractions, but they can often be made efficient workers ... There is no possibility at present of convincing society that they should not be allowed to reproduce, although from a eugenic point of view they constitute a grave problem because of their unusually prolific breeding." (Terman [1916:91-92], in Kamin [1974:6, 1977:20-21=1977:17])

"... only recently have we begun to recognize how serious a menace it is to the social, economic and moral welfare of the state ... It is responsible ... for the majority of cases of chronic and semi-chronic pauperism. ... the feeble-minded continue to multiply ... organized charities ... often contribute to the survival of individuals who would otherwise not be able to live and reproduce...

If we would preserve our state for a class of people worthy to possess it, we must prevent, as far as possible, the propagation of mental degenerates ... curtailing the increasing spawn of degeneracy." (Terman [1917] cited in Kamin [1974:7, 1977:21=1977:17])

"These men in their ultra altruistic and humane attitude, their desire to be fair to the workman, maintain that the great inequalities in social life are wrong and unjust. For example, here is a man who says, "I am wearing $12.00 shoes, there is a laborer who is wearing $3.00 shoes; why should I spend $12.00 while he can only afford $3.00? I live in a home that is artistically decorated, carpets, high-priced furniture, expensive pictures and other luxuries; there is a laborer that lives in a hovel with no carpets, no pictures, and the coarsest kind of furniture. It is not right, it is unjust"...As we have said, this argument is fallacious. It assumes the laborer is on the same mental level as the man who is defending him...

Now the fact is, that workman may have a ten year intelligence while you have a twenty. To demand for him such a home as you enjoy is as absurd as it would be to insist that every laborer should receive a graduate fellowship. How can there be such a thing as social equality with this wide range of mental capacity? The different levels of intelligence have different interests and require different treatment to make them happy...

As for an equal distribution of the wealth of the world that is equally absurd. The man of intelligence has spent his money wisely, has saved until he has enough to provide for his needs in case of sickness, while the man of low intelligence, no matter how much money he would have earned, would have spent much of it foolishly and would never have anything ahead. It is said that during the past year, the coal miners in certain parts of the country have earned more money than the operators and yet today when the mines shut down for a time, those people are the first to suffer. They did not save anything, although their whole life has taught them that mining is an irregular thing and that when they were having plenty of work they should save against the days when they do not have work...

These facts are appreciated. But it is not so fully appreciated that the cause is to be found in the fixed character of mental levels. In our ignorance we have said let us give these people one more chance - always one more chance." (Goddard [1920:99-103]. Cited in Kamin [1974:7,1977:22-23=1977:18-19])

2 Psychology and the Immigrant 30

The United States, until 1875, had no federal immigration law . The 1875 law, and all subsequent amendments until 1921, placed no numerical limitation on immigration. The first federal laws simply listed a number of excluded classes of individuals. The1875 list was modest - it barred coolies, convicts, and prostitutes.

The control over immigration developed slowly, and at first by the gradual addition of new excluded classes. There was also a 'gentlemen's agreement' with Japan, and circuitous regulations having to do with the longitudes and latitudes from which immigration was debarred served to assure an appropriate racial balalance. There were, however, no discriminations drawn among the various European countries which provided the bulk of immigration. Throughout the nineteenth century, the preponderance of immigration flowed from the countries of northen and western Europe.

The advances of psychology can be an reflected in the changing terminology of the list of excluded classes. The 1882 immigration act debarred lunatics and idiots, and the 1903 law added epileptics and insane persons. By 1907, a differentiation had been made between 'imbeciles' and 'feeble-minded persons', both of which classes were excluded. The fullest development of modern ▽031 mental science informed the law of 1917, which excluded 'persons of constitutional psychopathic inferiority'.

With the turn of the century, the 'New Immigration' from south-eastern Europe began to assume massive proportions. The English, Scandinavian, and German stock which had earlier predominated was now outnumbered by a wave of Italian, Polish, Russian, and Jewish immigrants. The popular press and the literary magazines of the period were filled with articles questioning the assimilability of the new and exotic ethnic breeds. There arose a public clamour for some form of 'quality control' over the inflow of immigrants. This at first took the form of a demand for a literacy test; but it could scarcely be doubted that the new science of mental testing, which proclaimed its ability to measure innate intelligenoe, would be called into the nation's service.

The first volunteer was Henry Goddard, who in 1912 was invited by the United States Public Health Service to Ellis Island,the immigrant receiving station in New York harbor. The in-trepid Goddard administered the Binet test and supplementaryperformance tests to representatives of what he called the 'great mass of average immigrants'. The results were sure to produce grave concern in the minds od thoughtful citizens. The test results established that 83 per cent of the Jews, 80 per cent of the Hungarians, 79 per cent of the Italians, and 87 per cent of the Russians were 'feeble-minded'.(2) By 1917, Goddard was able to report in the Journal of Delinquency that 'the number of aliens deported because of feeble-mindeednedd ... increased approximately 350 per cent in 1913 and 570 per cent in 1914 ... This was due to untiring efforts of the physicians who were inspired by the belief that mental tests could be used for the detection of feeble-minded aliens ...'(3) (Kamin [1974,1977:30-31]

"We have been overrun with a horde of the unfit... we have had no yardstick... The psychological tests. . . furnished us with the necessary yardstick... The Army tests...revealed the intellectual endowment of the men... The tests are equally applicable to immigrants... All that is required is a staff of two or three trained psychologists at each port... See Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences... We can not be seriously opposed to immigrants from Great Britain, Holland, Canada, Germany, Denmark, and Scandinavia... We can, however, strenuously object to immigration from Italy ...Russia ...Poland ...Greece ...Turkey... The Slavic and Latin countries show a marked contrast in intelligence with the western and northern European group... One can not recognize the high-grade imbecile at sight... They think with the spinal cord rather than with the brain. . .. . The necessity of providing for the future does not stimulate them to continuous labor... Being constitutionally inferior they are necessarily socially inadequate... Education can be received only by those who have intelligence to receive it. It does not create intelligence. That is what one is born with... The D minus group can not go beyond the second grade... we shall degenerate to the level of the Slav and Latin races ...pauperism, crime, sex offenses, and dependency... guided by a mind scarcely superior to the ox... we must protect ourselves against the degenerate horde... We must view the immigration problem from a new angle... We must apply ourselves to the task with the new weapons of science ...the perfect weapons formed for us by science... it is now as easy to calculate one's mental equipment as it is to measure his height and weight. The examination of over 2,000.000 recruits has tested and verified this standard... this new method ...will enable us to select those who are worthy and reject those who are worthless" (From supplementary testimony given by Dr. Arthur Sweeney at the House Commitee on Immigration and Naturalization hearings held on February 24th 1923. This section is quoted in Kamin [1974,1977:41=1978:38]).


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Shinya Tateiwa 2016 On Private Property, English Version, Kyoto Books Translation by Robert Chapeskie


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