¡Background in the West
Movements of users and survivors of psychiatry have been active mainly in the West.
In 1990 European Network of (ex-)Users and Survivors Psychiatry (ENUSP) was established.(ENUSP 2015)
In 1991 1st World Federation Psychiatric Users(WFPU) conference was held in Mexico City, Mexico.
@8 attendees (NL 1, USA 2, Mexico 1, NZ 2, Japan 2) (WNUSP 2015a)
In 1993 2nd WFPU conference was held in Tokyo, Japan.
@26 attendees (Britain 2, NL 1, Sweden1, USA 3, NZ 3, Japan 16) (WNUSP 2015b)
In 2001 1st World Network of Users and Survivors of Psychiatry (WNUSP), conference was held in Vancouver, Canada.
@Attendees of 34 organizations from 12 countries (2 organizations from Taiwan and 1 from Japan, from Asia)
In 2004 2nd WNUSP conference was held in Vejle, Denmark.
@184 Attendees from 53 countries (Pakistan 8, China 2, India 2, Japan 4 , Philippines 2 and Nepal 1 from Asia) (WNUSP 2015c)
In 2005 Pan African Network of Users and Survivors of Psychiatry(PANUSP) was established. (PANUSP 2015)
In 2009 3rd WNUSP conference was held in Kampala, Uganda (WNUSP 2015c)
¡Situation in Asia
Many Asian countries lack movements of users and survivors of psychiatry.
Summary of the general assembly at the closing ceremony of the 2nd conference of WNUSP in 2004
gThe Asia/Pacific region decided not to go for a regional network right now because they think it is too early for a formal network and the region is too diverse, but they are thinking of partnership proposalsh(Holling 2004)
Many countries don't have mental health system. In these countries persons with psychosocial disabilities tend not to recognize identities as users and survivors of psychiatry. That is one of the reasons why there are few movements of users and survivors of psychiatry in Asia. (TCI-Asia Oct. 29, 2014a)
¡Problems in Asian countries
Users and survivors of psychiatry in Asia continue to live in discrimination and exclusion.
The condition in Asian countries, that have mental health legislation
Ex.jJapan, India, South Korea, China
EThere are many tens of penal type of mental institutions, using forced treatment.
EPsychosocial disability is criminalized.
The condition in Asian countries that don't have mental health legislation
Ex.) Nepal, Philippines, SriLanka, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Thailand
EThere are not enough support systems for people with psychosocial disabilities.
ESome of these countries are planning to draft and adopt a mental health law despite of world experience of vast human rights violations in such institutions.
The conditions in Asia countries are not good with or without legislation.
«To change this situation
We have to promote inclusion of users and survivors of psychiatry into communities in Asia.
(TCI-Asia Dec. 30, 2014)
¡Preparative meeting for TCI-Asia
May 2013 in Pune, India
Attendees from 6 countries in Asia.
They shared experiences on community based efforts for inclusion (both by self-advocates and social workers) in the Asian region.
Highlighted the need to have an Asian platform to promote inclusion.
- cross disability movements
- other key supporters in the region and the world
Emphasis of Article 19 (Living independently and being included in community) in CRPD.
Because in Asian region:
- Social and cultural structure is still strong and utilisable.
- Not all social relationships are contractual, and neighbourhood and community concepts exist.
(TCI-Asia Dec. 30, 2015)
¡Establishment of TCI-Asia
November 4-7 2014 in Bangkok, Thailand
38 attendees from 12 countries (2 attendees from 2 countries out of Asia region)
The present priorities of TCI-Asia are:
1) To advocate through Strategy / position papers, in countries where mental institutions exist, for a process of De-institutionalization
2) To influence country policies so that they develop community based mental health programs for people with mental health problems and psychosocial disabilities, with an accent on Alternatives
3) To work closely with cross disability and human rights movements in-country and regionally to ensure our inclusion in disability advocacy for the region at various levels
4) To facilitate through Missions and Pilots in Asia, that governments ensures the implementation of Article 19 through vibrant community development efforts
5) To organize better as an organization for effective advocacy in the region
(TCI-Asia Oct. 29 2014b, Dec. 30, 2014)
¡Progress of TCI-Asia
June 9-12 2015 in Bangkok, Thailand
19 Attendees from 9 countries (TCI-Asia May 29, 2015)
November 17-21 2015 in Incheon, South Korea
The situation of users and survivors of psychiatry is diverse in Asia. So in Asia it has been difficult to promote movements toward one same goal. Most Asian countries lack movements of users and survivors of psychiatry to begin with, making the formation an alliance more difficult.
In this situation, it is significant progress that the trans-Asian alliance of TCI-Asia was established. The TCI-Asia emphasizes the importance of living independently and being included in the community. The movements towards the de-institutionalization are of course meaningful in Asia that already have mental health legislation with institutionalization. But real meaning of the alliance is considered to be the movement in the region which donft have mental health legislation yet and, persons with psychosocial disabilities are excluded in their communities or legislators are trying to establish legislation to institutionalize persons with psychosocial disabilities. There are few movements in such religion. So it seems that the institutionalization will be promoted without recognition that such policy result to worse situation. But users and survivors of psychiatry from other countries who have experienced the institutionalization, can share their experiences in the TCI-Asia. This will lead to avoid repeating the history of institutionalization.
European Network of (ex-)Users and Survivors of Psychiatry, 2015, "Who We Are," (http://www.enusp.org/index.php/about-us/who-we-are, last access date: Nov. 14, 2015).
Holling, Iris, 2004, "Closing Ceremony Summary," (http://wnusp.rafus.dk/documents/vejle04_closingsummary.pdf, last access date: Nov. 14, 2015).
Pan African Network of Users and Survivors of Psychiatry, 2015, "Home," (http://www.panusp.org/, last access date: Nov. 14, 2015).
Transforming Communities for Inclusion in Asia, Oct. 29, 2014a, "Statement of Purpose of TransAsia Group on Inclusion," (https://transformingcommunitiesforinclusion.wordpress.com/2014/10/29/statement-of-purpose-of-transasia-group-on-inclusion/, last access date: Nov. 14, 2015).
\\\\, Oct. 29, 2014b, "Participants to the II Asian Regional Conference on Transforming Communities for Inclusion," (https://transformingcommunitiesforinclusion.wordpress.com/2014/10/29/participants-to-the-ii-asian-regional-conference-on-transforming-communities-for-inclusion/, last access date: Nov. 14, 2015).
\\\\, Dec. 30, 2014, "Announcing the TransAsian Alliance on Transforming Communities for Inclusion of Persons with Psychosocial Disabilities," (https://transformingcommunitiesforinclusion.wordpress.com/2014/12/30/announcing-the-transasian-alliance-on-transforming-communities-for-inclusion-of-persons-with-psychosocial-disabilities/, last access date: Nov. 14, 2015).
\\\\, May 29, 2015, "Strategy Meeting of TCI Asia 9-12 Bangkok 2015," (https://transformingcommunitiesforinclusion.wordpress.com/2015/05/29/strategy-meeting-of-tci-asia-9-12-bangkok-2015/, last access date: Nov. 14, 2015).
World Network of Users and Survivors of Psychiatry, 2015a, "WFPU First committee meeting, Mexico City," (http://wnusp.rafus.dk/wfpu-first-committee-meeting-mexico-city.html, last access date: Nov. 14, 2015).
\\\\, 2015b, "Minutes of WFPU Meetings, Japan," (http://wnusp.rafus.dk/minutes-of-wfpu-meetings-japan.html, last access date: Nov. 14, 2015).
\\\\, 2015c, "General Assemblies," (http://wnusp.rafus.dk/general-assemblies/, last access date: Nov. 14, 2015).