"The Reaffirmation of the Stigmatized Family: the Examination of Comparative Studies about English-Speaking Lesbian-families in Countries"
last update: 20151224
The Reaffirmation of the Stigmatized Family: the Examination of Comparative Studies about English-Speaking Lesbian-families in Countries
The purpose of this paper is to point out that lesbian-families are not homogeneous. Arita(2006)* surveyed the
research in developmental psychology about lesbian-mothers and their children in the U.S. and Europe. As a
whole, this research holds the premise that lesbian-families are homogeneous. However, recent research
indicates that this premise does not match reality. The research of Mary Ann van Dam, Rhonda Brown et.al,
reveals that lesbian-mothers who have had babies as lesbians by design disclose their sexuality to society more
than lesbian-mothers with children from a previous heterosexual marriage. This research indicates that
although lesbian-mothers who are open about their sexuality may receive social criticism, they also have the
ability to create stronger support networks. T.Gershon, et.al, focuses on the relationship between feelings of
self-esteem and stigma in the children of lesbian-mothers. The research shows that children who disclose more
about their mothers sexuality tend to have higher self-esteem even if they perceive a social stigma. Finally, the
writing of A.Garner, who is a child of gay-fathers, shows the complexities that arise when straight children tell
the outside world that their parents are gay. This suggests that not only the families of lesbians but those of
gays as well are heterogeneous.
*Arita,K.2006 "Beyond limitation in the legal definition of 'parent': what lesbian-mothers assert in legal
courts in America," Core Ethics 2:209-224.
Key words: Lesibian mother, Gay father, Disclosure, Coming out，Reproduction of LGBTIQ