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「普遍性追求の時代から人間性の時代へ」"From the Universality to the Humanity"

高野 利実

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last update: 20151221


"From the Universality to the Humanity"
「普遍性追求の時代から人間性の時代へ」
高野利実(東京大学医学部医学科3年)

---The 46th Japan-America Student Conference "Philosophies of Life and Human
Issues Table" (第46回日米学生会議「哲学と人生」分科会)における発表(1994年
8月)---

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1. The pursuit of universality
The admiration of science and the belief of religion are inconsistent, but I
think they have the same root. --- the desire for universality, which human
beings have in nature.

2. The history of the pursuit
(Change of the relations among the God, nature, and human beings)
a) From the Middle Age to the 17, 18th century (fig.1)
b) From the 18,19th century to now (fig.2)

3. The limitation of pursuit
a) In the case of science
b) In the case of religion

4. The age of humanity
The age of universality has finished, and from now on "The Age of Humanity"
will begin.
a) From the point of science
b) From the point of religion
c) New relations among the God, nature, and human beings (fig.3)

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* fig. 1 (The World From the Middle Age to the 17, 18th century)
「神」「自然」「人間」の3つの円が描かれている。神は自然と人間を支配している。
神の中には「普遍性」が包含されていて、「自然」の中にも、「神の意志」としての
「普遍性」が包含されている。「科学」「宗教」は矢印で示されており、ともに人間か
ら発し、自然における普遍性(=神の意志)を経て、神における普遍性へと向かってい
る。
* fig. 2 (The World From the 18, 19th century to now)
fig. 1と同じく、3つの円が描かれているが、神が自然と人間を支配するという関係は
なくなり、神と自然は断裂している。宗教という矢印は、人間から、神における普遍性
へと向かっており、科学という矢印は、人間から、自然における普遍性(もはや神の意
志とは関係のない普遍性)へと向かっている。
* fig. 3 (New relations among the God, nature, and human beings)
「人間」の円が大きく描かれ、「神」の一部と「自然」の一部に重なっている。宗教の
矢印は、人間から発し、「神」を経て再び人間へと向かう。科学の矢印は、人間から発
し、「自然」を経て再び人間へと向かう。もはや、神の中にも自然の中にも「普遍性」
は描かれていない。

*****************************
0. Why do flowers bloom?
Why do flowers bloom? "Because pollination occurs at flowers. They bloom so
that they can preserve their species." ---This is a scientific explanation.
When I heard this for the first time, I admired science that explained such a
natural phenomenon. But now I think such explanations are meaningless in
daily life and they are contrary to our dreams. Even if it is scientifically
true that flowers bloom for preservation of their species, I want to believe
flowers bloom to make our world bright, or to watch lovers silently.

1. The pursuit of universality
I think there are three mysteries in the natural world; the birth of the
universe, the birth of life, and the birth of human beings (or the birth of
human brains). Natural scientists are trying to make clear those mysteries. I
myself think as a prospective scientist, it's wonderful, but at the same time
I have another hope that those mysteries should not be elucidated. Mysteries
are what is beyond human's knowledge, and the clearer they become, the less I
cannot imagine or dream about them freely.
The admiration for science and the belief of religion --- those two feelings
are inconsistent, but they also have common roots; the desire for
universality. (The reverence for mysteries is a basic aspect of religion. So
from here I discuss on religion instead of mysteries.)
Science has been developed to clarify the universal truth that dominates this
world, and religions are concepts that can explain this mysterious universe
by using external power. In short, both science and religion pursuit the
universality, and I think we all have the desire for it by nature.
Now there is antagonism between natural science and religion. Pure scientists
deny religion because it is unscientific, and teachers of religion deny
science because it defiles their god. But I think they are on an equal
footing that is "Pursuit of Universality", and the difference between them is
only the way they pursue it.
I believe in science, but when I think about the three mysteries in this
world, I sometimes feel external power. For me science and religion seem not
so different.
In the case of Christianity, there was an era science and religion walk the
same way.--- The age of Scholasticism.

2. The history of the pursuit
(Change of the relations among the God, nature, and human beings)

a) From the Middle Age to the 17, 18th century (fig.1)
At Christianity, the God created this world and God's will dominates the
nature. The fact that "Catholic" means universal tells us that in Christian
world, God is equal to the universal truth. There was also universality in
the nature, but it was made by God's will. Human beings whose appearance look
like God's form are given the right to know God's will in the nature and
Scientists at this age pursuit it. Even Copernicus who published the
heliocentric theory believed the Creation, and Newton, Descartes, and other
many scientists were within the world of God.

b) From the 18,19th century to now (fig.2)
At the 18th or 19th century, science became independent of God, and began to
pursue universal truth outside of God. Scientists think universal truth
exists not in the nature God created but in the "pure nature". Thus science
and religion began to go different way from around this time. The symbolic
incident of this change is the publication of "On the Origin of Species" by
Charles Robert Darwin.
Since this change of paradigm, pure scientists have believed universality
exists only in pure nature, and teachers of religion have believed only God
has universality. (Of course there are many people who have taken middle
positions.)

3. The limitation of pursuit
Human beings have pursued universality such various ways, but have they found
it? --- The answer is "No". I think the pursuit of it has limitations.

a) In the case of science
In physics, the principle of relativity and quantum theory were found, and
physicists have made clear many mysteries of the universe. Hawking, a space
physicist in UK, says that we can elucidate all phenomena of the universe
without God some day. But Great Universal Theory (GUT) has not been completed
yet, and even if it is done and all mysteries of the universe are elucidated,
the universe is not so simple and beautiful as the Creation and the Last
Judgment. According to Hawking's theory, there are no beginning, no end, and
no boundary in the universe, and we must use 'imaginary time' to understand
it. So, I think even if Hawking finds universality in the universe, it won't
look so universal for us, ordinary people. Furthermore the uncertainty
principle of quantum mechanics (that says that observers cannot define a
position and a velocity of particles at the same time) and chaos theory (that
treats irregular and complex phenomena in nature) indicates the limitations
of determinism. Hawking himself points out that even GUT cannot predict all
happenings in the universe.
In biology, for a long time since Watson and Click discovered the double
helix structure of DNA, many biologists thought life was completely
determined by DNA. But now, they found life is not so simple. It is true that
life is the expression of DNA, but other factors also affect the formation of
life. Tomio Tada, Japanese immunologist, says immunity is the "super system"
--- an active system that organizes itself referring to changing self. This
system also applies to many other complex life systems such as development,
brain and nervous system, and life itself. They cannot be elucidated by
determinism. The diversity of life was caused by the randomness and
contingency of super system, and there is no universality.
>From examples of physics and biology I wrote above, I think it is difficult
for natural science to find universal truth in pure nature, and many
scientists who think the same way are searching for a new way of science.

b) In the case of religion
How about the pursuit of universality by religion? Almost all religions have
myths of the origin of this universe, and also have gods or something like
those as symbols of universality. Of course there are some differences. For
example, roughly speaking, in the West, they are monotheism and God exists
outside of nature, while in the East, they are polytheism and gods exist
inside of nature. But all religions are based on the people's desire for
universality.
Then, did religions succeed in acquiring universality?--- The answer is "No",
the same as the case of science.
In the case of Christianity, until the 15th century, churches had a very
strong power and the societies were dominated by Christianity, but after
science departed from religions and proved many facts that didn't agree with
the Bible such as heliocentric theory or the theory of evolution,
Christianity began to lose dignity. And at the 16th century, the Reformation
took place and people began to change the Christian world.
Now, religions are very diverse, and antagonism between religions is a
serious problem. There are many wars caused by the difference of belief, and
a part of fundamentalists go to terrorism. This world looks chaotic on the
point of religions, and I can see no universality in religions now.

My conclusion is that the pursuit of universality has limitations in both
cases of science and religions.

4. The age of humanity
Human beings have believed universality exists in the nature or God, and both
nature and God are outside of them. In the case of science, Descartes thought
nature was outside of his spirit and could be understood mechanically and
objectively, and his thought became the foundation of modern science. Now
most of modern science is "exo-science" in which scientists are outside of
the systems they study. In the case of Christianity, human beings are
creatures of God and of course God exists outside of human beings. So nature
and God in which human beings have pursued universality are outside of them.
But I think the age of outside universality has finished and the age of
humanity has begun.

a) From the point of science
In the case of science, "exo-science" came to a standstill when uncertainty
principle and chaos theory appeared. Science couldn't continue without
treating human beings, and "endo-science", in which scientists is in the
system they study, began to be developed.
In space science, "Human Principle" appeared. It says that the universe in
which human beings exist is the only one human beings can recognize, and this
is the answer to the question why this universe has conditions that make the
existence of human beings possible.
Many biologists failed in attempts to treat life as machine made of just
matter, and gave up "exo-biology". They began to have interest in human
beings. For example, Dr. Takeshi Yohro, a Japanese anatomist, advanced
"cerebralism" (Yui Nou Ron) in which human brains and the world recognized by
human brains are the only real things.
Now biology is getting near to the humanity or human science, and many
interdisciplinary studies have been born between them. The representation of
them is "cognitive science" that studies the structure of human brains in the
method of biology, physiology, computer engineering, anthropology, psychology,
philosophy, and so on.
The nature without humanity is pure but it looks far from daily life of us.
>From now on, the object of science will be human beings inside of the nature
and the world human beings recognize by their brains, and it will bring us
wilder view of nature.

b) From the point of religion
In the case of religion, when we discuss on religious problems in this world,
Whether God exists or not is not so concerned, but what people believe is the
problem. According to "Yui Nou Ron" of Dr. Takeshi Yohro, belief exist just
in human brains. This doesn't deny the existence of God, but it is true that
believing in something is function of human brains. Conflicts between
different religions break out because of different ways they believe, and
this is the problems of human brains rather than God. So, I think from now on,
religious problems should be treated on the level of human beings. Now when
beliefs are very various, we all should accept other people's senses of
values, which is the best way for human beings to coexist peacefully. The age
of humanity will begin in the world of religions, too.

c) New relations among the God, nature, and human beings (fig.3)
Fig.3 means neither that human beings are the ruler of nature nor that human
beings take the place of God. I just say that we need to think nature and God
on the viewpoint of human beings so that we can know them more profoundly.
And now it is sure that the concerns of science and religions are going to
human beings.
So I want to call the new age as "the Age of Humanity". Human beings are
getting interesting now.:


REV: 20151221
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